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Wednesday, May 29
 

8:30am

Miller House and Architecture of Columbus, IN
$95 (lunch included) Limited spaces available – reserve your spot today. Join fellow Annual Meeting attendees for a daylong tour of the architectural gems of Columbus, Indiana led by Tony Costello, Professor Emeritus X and Bradley Brooks, curator of the Miller House and Gardens. No tour of Columbus would be complete without touring the Miller House and Gardens. Commissioned by industrialist and philanthropist J. Irwin Miller and his wife Xenia Simons Miller in 1953, Miller House features the finest expressions of American modernism, following the tradition of renowned German-American architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Architecture enthusiasts will appreciate the open layout, flat roof, and stone and glass walls. Textile enthusiasts will love the rooms filled with textiles of vibrant colors and intricate patterns. The large geometric gardens feature dramatic honey locust trees and other botanical treasures. In 2000, the Miller House became the first National Historic Landmark to receive its designation while designer Dan Kiley was still living and while the house’s original owners still lived there. A true architectural treasure, the house showcases the work of leading 20th-century architects and designers such as Eero Saarinen, Alexander Girard, and Dan Kiley. By special arrangement, the curator of the Miller House and Gardens, Bradley Brooks will be leading this part of the tour. Columbus, Indiana, just under 50 miles south of Indianapolis, was founded at roughly the same time as the state capital but did not grow rapidly until after World War II. In 1954, the Cummins Engine Foundation was developed to attract young architectural talent to design a school in the area. Today, Columbus is ranked sixth in the nation by the American Institute of Architects for architectural innovation and design. National Geographic Traveler ranked Columbus as America’s most significant historic place on the strength of its architectural heritage. The city’s downtown contains more than 70 buildings by noted modern architects including I. M. Pei, Cesar Pelli, Robert Venturi, Richard Meier, John Carl Warnecke, and Harry Weese, as well as public art works by internationally renowned architects and artists. Professor Costello will lead the group on a walking tour that will showcase the innovative and eclectic architecture. We will stop for lunch to give us strength for the afternoon walk. Enrich your 41st Annual Meeting experience by exploring all that Columbus has to offer! Tour goes rain or shine. The bus will need to depart at 8:30 am sharp to keep our appointment at Miller House. Please wear shoes that are good for walking!

Wednesday May 29, 2013 8:30am - 5:00pm
JW Marriott 2nd Floor Exit Near Griffin Hall (Maryland Street Side) 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

AIC-CERT Meeting
Wednesday May 29, 2013 9:00am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom G 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

Digital Preservation for Video
If content on analog videotape is to survive for the long term, the tapes must be digitized: moved from unstable magnetic media, into the digital realm where--in theory--they can be preserved indefinitely and migrated forward as files rather than physical objects. Digitization, however, means more than simply selecting a destination file format. It requires a series of decisions that will determine the long-term viability of files created--and thus of the valuable video content.

The goal of this workshop is to familiarize attendees who do not have experience in video preservation with the current best practices. Participants will be able to begin addressing the needs of a video collection, prepare for digitization projects, and make decisions about vendors, workflows, and technical issues.

Workshop topics include: basic digital file creation, preservation and access file formats and codecs, software, storage and trusted digital repositories, workflows for digitization, and technical and preservation metadata. Participants will examine case studies of small and large-scale digitization projects in order to understand real-world applications of principles introduced in the workshop.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 9:00am - 5:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 104 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

Integrated Pest Management for Collections
Preventing damage from pests is an essential task in the responsible management of all collections. Implementing an appropriate Integrated Pest Management (IPM) plan is the best way to prevent infestations from taking root and to deal with any problems in a safe and effective manner. Participants will receive a basic introduction to IPM in order to be able to assess appropriate options for their institutions and collections in areas of policy and procedures, preventing infestations, trapping and monitoring, and remedial treatment.

Participants will learn to identify ways in which pests gain access to collections, how a pest monitoring program can be implemented, how to identify some of the most common and harmful museum pests, the pros and cons of a range of remedial treatments, and how to develop IPM policies and procedures for an institution.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 9:00am - 5:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 107 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

Managing Projects: The Underrated Conservation Skill
You can’t help fulfill the goals and mission of your profession and business if your projects are not delivering as hoped. Expand your conservation skills with adaptable and practical project management tools to increase your ability to help more clients. Beneath all the flow charts, guidelines, formulas, and technical jargon is a set of basic ideas that make up the core of effective project management.

The workshop will provide:

An opportunity to present your project experiences and challenges
An overview of basic project management terms, practices, and essential skills
Risk identification and response options
Planning & estimating techniques for conservation projects
A packet of supplemental workshop materials

Some comments from participants at the 2012 presentation of this workshop:

“Well-paced and organized. Fantastic and helpful.”
“Specific examples related to conservation were really helpful.”

Wednesday May 29, 2013 9:00am - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

Plastics LAST longer if Conserved (PLASTIC)
*To place your name on the waiting list for this workshop, please contact Adam Allen, Meetings Associate directly at aallen@conservation-us.org or 202-661-8063

Condition surveys of plastics in collections conclude that 75% exhibit degradation and need either preventive conservation to slow their rate of degradation or invasive treatment to stabilize or strengthen them. Before developing a conservation strategy, it is essential for the conservator to identify the cause and pathway of degradation and the properties of the problem plastic.

Participants will learn to understand the causes and recognize the manifestations of degradation in the major plastics types found in cultural heritage collections, through use of a damage atlas and case histories. The latest research on the effectiveness of activated carbon, silica gel, and zeolites will be covered. Participants will learn how to produce low-oxygen microclimates and use adsorbents to remove degradation causes or products. Participants will also learn the least damaging techniques to clean plastics. The course will include the latest findings from the recently concluded research project POPART (Preservation Of Plastic ARTefacts in museums), which included 11 institutions from 8 countries. Both instructors were actively involved in POPART.

Participants are strongly encouraged to bring objects or images of objects to the course for discussion.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 9:00am - 5:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 101-102 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:30am

Saving Energy in Lighting Conservation Environments
This workshop reviews typical energy use for lighting museums, libraries and archives; techniques to reduce energy consumption; and how to reliably predict their annual cost savings. The primary focus is on criteria and light sources, including appropriate uses for LED lighting. Simple calculations and worksheets are used to estimate savings from potential changes. Case studies will demonstrate how projects can best be implemented in collecting institutions. This workshop is appropriate for institutional and consulting conservators, as well as operating and maintenance staff.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 9:30am - 4:30pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 103 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

12:00pm

Indianapolis Museum of Art Conservation Lab and Collections
$25 Join your colleagues for the ultimate behind the scenes tour of the Indianapolis Museum of Art conservation labs and collections. Discover the first conservation science lab designed in an arts and crafts style. Have the opportunity to ask questions and compare notes with the conservators at the IMA. Afterwards have the opportunity to take a curator led tour of a selected part of the permanent collection or the Ai Weiwei: According to What? special exhibition. Leave some time to enjoy the gardens.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 12:00pm - 5:30pm
JW Marriott 2nd Floor Exit Near Griffin Hall (Maryland Street Side) 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

12:30pm

Indiana State Museum Conservation Lab, Paleo Prep Lab and Storage
$8 Tour the labs and storage at the Indiana State Museum to discover how the Conservation staff integrates workflows with the Collections Management and Exhibits departments. Talk with staff members about the lab’s remotely controlled overhead camera system, which is used for photo-documentation of large textiles; the system is an invaluable tool in our ongoing effort to condition report the entire textile and costume collection. Plus, get a rare glimpse into our paleontology prep lab, which will highlight treatment and mounting activities as we prepare for our upcoming exhibit, Elephant Graveyard: Mastadonts and Mammoths in Indiana.  Note the Indiana State Museum and the Indiana Historical Society are next door to each other. It is possible to take both tours and it will make for a great afternoon.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 12:30pm - 2:30pm
JW Marriott 2nd Floor Exit Near Griffin Hall (Maryland Street Side) 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

1:00pm

(Conservators in Private Practice) Optimizing Your Conservation Practice: The A to Z of Business, Ethics, Economics and Negotiation Strategies
Ticket required: $50 for CIPP members, $75 for non-CIPP members.

Seminar is sold as a full-day package; no prorated option.

1:00 PM - 1:40 PM
How - Select an Optimal Business Structure
Corporation, LLC, Partnership, or Solo? Learn how the organization of your business is a form of client development, the tax realities, and economics. When does it make sense to convert one form of business organization to another? When do you know it’s time to give up flying “solo”?

1:40 PM - 1:50 PM
Question and Answer

1:50 PM - 2:00 PM
Break

2:00 PM - 2:40 PM
Conservators Professional Services Agreements
CIPP has provided members a model contract. Alexandra Darraby, who drafted the CIPP model will discuss how - adapt or create a contract that fits your needs, how to maximize its use and how—and when—to “just say no.” How to traction AIC ethics, federal laws like OSHA, and your own best practices with contracts?
And much more.

2:40 PM - 2:50 PM
Question and Answer

2:50 PM - 3:00 PM
Break

3:00 PM - 3:40 PM
Panel Discussion: Insurance Practical Solutions for Conservators
Join Independent Insurance brokers from DeWitt Stern and Independent Insurance Adjusters in a panel discussion on the ins and outs of coverage, understanding the policy, premiums, exclusions in the event of damage or loss, how to handle client claims. What to ask the broker before the policy is placed. And much, much more.

3:40 PM - 3:50 PM
Question and Answer

3:50 PM - 4:00 PM
Break

4:00 PM - 5:00 PM
CIPP PRESENTS! An Interactive Performance on Negotiation and Problem Solving by CIPP members with Audience Participation!
Join Alexandra and the CIPP “cast” at an inaugural interactive session that presents a conservation fact pattern for a negotiation and resolution of a conservation problem involving a valuable object with institutions, clients, collectors, insurance experts and others. The audience attending the program will be divided into segments prior to the performance to problem solve their own “solutions.” Then, CIPP “Actors” will perform the roles, and we will critique audience and performance solutions. This highly entertaining undertaking illustrates the strengths and weaknesses in negotiating techniques and how the risk management strategies of the introduced during the day’s program actually spool out in day to day conservation practice. Lights! Action! Roll!

Moderators
Wednesday May 29, 2013 1:00pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

1:00pm

Disasters and Mental Health
The psychosocial reactions to disasters and trauma are recognized to be among the most enduring and debilitating outcomes of disasters. To respond effectively, responders need a full understanding of the psychosocial impact of disasters, which greatly exceeds that of the medical impact on individuals, responders, and the community. Not only do responders need to fully understand this impact on those they are assisting, but they also need to understand the impact on themselves and their colleagues, in order to remain effective and functional both during the response and afterwards.

This presentation will focus on the psychological first aid (PFA) model, which includes interventions with survivors that target immediate needs and acute stress reactions. The workshop will explore the psychosocial consequences of disasters for survivors, communities, and responders, ways to provide practical assistance to meet survivor and responder needs, and self care during and after the response.

This workshop is designed primarily as continuing training for AIC Collections Emergency Response Team members, but is open to all.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 1:00pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom G 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:45pm

Indiana Historical Society
$8 Discover the challenges and triumph of a collection that is all digitalize rather than displayed. Take a behind the scenes tour of the societies’ conservation labs. See how the historical society engages young people in conservation through a hands experience aimed at showing young people what conservation is and its importance. View how the historical society brings history to life through an innovative way of bringing its historical photos to life. This tour is an excellent way to start examining the meeting’s theme – The contemporary in conservation

Wednesday May 29, 2013 2:45pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott 2nd Floor Exit Near Griffin Hall (Maryland Street Side) 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

Emerging Conservation Professionals Portfolio Seminar
ECPN is expanding the portfolio session this year to address a larger, more diverse audience and provide increased opportunities for discussion. Please join us for a two-hour session, consisting of presentations, a panel discussion, and interactive portfolio sharing. The presentations will focus on case studies of building a conservation portfolio, creating an online or digital portfolio, and professional development “beyond the portfolio.” These presentations will be followed by a panel discussion with opportunities for attendees to ask questions. The session will conclude with portfolio sharing from volunteers representing different graduate programs and conservation specialties.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 4:00pm - 6:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 105-106 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:30pm

Historic Canal Walk
Join a representative from Indiana Landmarks, a statewide organization that saves and protects buildings and places of architectural and historical significance, on a walking tour of the central canal. The Central Canal, opened in 1839, was intended to provide water power to industries and move goods by linking Indianapolis with the Wabash and Erie Canal. It never happened, and the state went bankrupt trying to construct the canal system. Hear the canal story as you walk along the restored waterway, now part of the Indianapolis park system. Note: this tour will start near the Indiana Historical Society, so it is possible to take both tours.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 5:30pm - 7:00pm
JW Marriott 2nd Floor Exit Near Griffin Hall (Maryland Street Side) 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:00pm

Respirator Fit Testing Lecture
Whether you are using hazardous chemicals or working with mold-infested artifacts after a disaster, you need to be sure you are protected by the right equipment. The lecture meets the annual training requirement mandated by OSHA, while the fit testing meets the annual testing requirement. Attend the free lecture Wednesday evening by a Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) on the care and maintenance of respirators and general information on their proper use. The lecture is open to all; those wishing to schedule fit testing appointment MUST attend the lecture. Fit testing appointments will be scheduled on Thursday in 15 to 20 minute intervals from 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m. Registrants for fit testing appointments MUST bring a completed and signed OSHA Medical Evaluation form with the signature of their health professional and the dates for which the evaluation is valid. The form and signature sheets are available on the AIC Health and Safety Guides and Publication Webpage at www.conservation-us.org/fittest. Registrants should bring their own respirators or select an appropriate style from AIC’s samples.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 6:00pm - 7:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom G 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:00pm

Specialty Group Officers Meeting
Wednesday May 29, 2013 6:00pm - 8:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Rooms 203-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:30pm

Emerging Conservation Professionals Happy Hour
Immediately following the Portfolio Seminar, meet and mingle with emerging conservators and others interested in ECPN over an extended happy hour, generously sponsored by Tru Vue, Inc. Bring a friend or mentor and stop by anytime between 6:30pm and 10pm for a drink, a bite to eat, and chance to connect with your peers and colleagues.

Wednesday May 29, 2013 6:30pm - 10:00pm
"End Zone" of the High Velocity Sports Bar 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:00pm

 
Thursday, May 30
 

8:30am

Welcome and Awards
Congratulations to AIC’s 2013 Award Recipients!

Ross Merrill Award for Outstanding Commitment to the Preservation and Care of Collections
Indianapolis Museum of Art

Sheldon & Caroline Keck Award
Marian Kaminitz
Jonathan Thornton

Honorary Membership
Jean Portell

Conservation Advocacy Award
Dr. Nancy Odegaard

Thursday May 30, 2013 8:30am - 9:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E-F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

Collecting the Performative: The Role of the Conservator in the Conservation of Performance-Based Art
In 2005 Tate acquired its first two performances, a work by Roman Ondak called Good Feelings in Good Times 2003 and This is Propaganda 2002 by Tino Sehgal. Despite no material component existing for either work, Tate’s conservation department shares the responsibility for ensuring that we can continue to display these two works, and our increasing collection of performance-based artworks, into the future.
This paper explores impact of this move by contemporary art museums to collect performances on conservation and reflects on how an engagement with these works has lead to some surprising shifts in perspective for other areas of more traditional conservation practice. For example working with these forms of intangible heritage has had an effect on thinking around the museum’s ongoing relationships with artists, the role of memory in the conservation of a collection and an emerging conception of the museum as archive.
The research that informs this paper has been carried out under the auspices of the research network Collecting the Performative which is jointly funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council within the UK and the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. This network looks at practice within dance, theatre and activism and asks how methods for creating legacy within these arenas can inform emerging conservation practice for performances collected by contemporary
art museums.

Speakers
PL

Pip Laurenson

Head of Collection Care Research, Tate
Pip Laurenson has over twenty years of experience working within a contemporary art museum and in her current role, she is responsible for the strategic direction, development and leadership of Collection Care Research, which serves all four of Tate’s galleries and its collection centre. Pip has secured awards for research from a range of funders including private foundations, the European Union and the UK’s Arts and Humanities... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 9:00am - 9:25am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E-F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

Respirator Fit Testing Appointments
Whether you are using hazardous chemicals or working with mold-infested artifacts after a disaster, you need to be sure you are protected by the right equipment. The lecture meets the annual training requirement mandated by OSHA, while the fit testing meets the annual testing requirement. Attend the free lecture Wednesday evening by a Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) on the care and maintenance of respirators and general information on their proper use. The lecture is open to all; those wishing to schedule fit testing appointment MUST attend the lecture. Fit testing appointments will be scheduled on Thursday in 15 to 20 minute intervals from 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m. Registrants for fit testing appointments MUST bring a completed and signed OSHA Medical Evaluation form with the signature of their health professional and the dates for which the evaluation is valid. The form and signature sheets are available on the AIC Health and Safety Guides and Publication Webpage at www.conservation-us.org/fittest. Registrants should bring their own respirators or select an appropriate style from AIC’s samples.

Thursday May 30, 2013 9:00am - 6:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 107 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:25am

Contemporary Colorant Change: Assessing Changes in the Herblock Collection due to Exhibition and Storage of Fugitive Media, Part II
The Herblock foundation donated the entire collection of editorial cartoonist Herbert L. Block (Herblock) to the Library of Congress after he passed away in 2001. The collection included 14,400 original drawings for his daily published cartoons and 50,000 rough sketches. A previous presentation at AIC in 2009 introduced concerns with the collection, since the bequest to the Library required that some of the collection must be on exhibit at all times, and Herblock began using light sensitive materials in the 1970s. Conservators were able to collect a sample of the materials he was using at the time of his death which included porous point pens (felt-tip pens), whiteout, colored pencils, ball point pens, lithocrayons, india ink ,graphite pencils and pressure sensitive labels (Avery labels), as well as a stock of the coquille paper board substrate containing optical brighteners he favored throughout his career. The continuation of this research begun in 2009 encompassed a long-term longitudinal study of the impact of exhibition conditions on contemporary media and substrates. While light exposure on exhibition was an issue, conservators and curators had observed fading of a selection of some of the drawings while in dark storage. To assess changes occurring in Herblock collection materials, and accurately identify the media involved in these changes, sample sheets (Whatman paper and coquille board) of the collected media were created and aged both naturally and with a range of accelerated aging techniques. Aging encompassed both light and dark aging to determine the mode of degradation, with combinations of ultraviolet (UV) and visible, visible light (without UV), moderately raised temperature, relative humidity and dark conditions with sample sheets monitored during carefully controlled natural and accelerated aging. Progressive non-invasive and mildly invasive analyses were undertaken both before and after successive aging periods. Instrumentation included hyperspectral imaging, UV-VIS colorimetry, micro-fade-ometer, and micro-sampling of sample sheets for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analyses to identify specific components of media shown to have faded or changed in color after various aging methods (such as porous point pens) then underwent separation of ink components with thin layer chromatography (TLC) and analysis with Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Additional hyperspectral imaging was undertaken of specific Herblock drawings from the period 1974-2001 that had been either on exhibit or kept in the dark. These drawings all contained the full range of media collected in the sample set. India ink was used as a reference for stability throughout the testing. All the environments where the drawings were located were monitored, and predictive fade testing with the micro-fade-ometer indicated some interesting results for a number of these contemporary materials, with comparisons between the three spectroscopy techniques indicating limitations and benefits in the analytical techniques. SEM EDS confirmed the composition of the optical brightener in the coquille board. The identification of the color change in media and the method of degradation for both exhibit and storage conditions sought to replicate natural aging as closely as possible, and provide long-term useful information for the preservation of this unique collection of modern contemporary materials.

Speakers
avatar for Fenella France

Fenella France

Chief, Preservation Research and Testing Division, Library of Congress
Dr. France is Chief of the Preservation Research and Testing Division at the Library of Congress researching non-destructive imaging techniques, and prevention of environmental degradation on collections. She received her Ph.D from Otago University, New Zealand. After lecturing at Otago, she was the research scientist for the Star-Spangled Banner project at NMAH. An international specialist on polymer aging and environmental deterioration to... Read More →
MH

Meghan Hill

Preservation Imaging Technician, Library of Congress
HK

Holly Krueger

Head of Paper Conservation, Library of Congress
MK

Matthew Kullman

Scanning Electron Microscopy Specialist
HY

Ha Young Park

Masters in Paper Conservation, Accademia di Bella Arti di Brera
avatar for Cindy Connelly Ryan

Cindy Connelly Ryan

Preservation Specialist, Library of Congress Preservation Research and Testing Division
Cindy Connelly Ryan is a specialist in historic artists' practices, with a background in physics (Carnegie-Mellon University), art history and art conservation (New York University). She held a Forbes Fellowship at the Freer/Sackler Galleries of the Smithsonian Institution, developing methods for plant gum binding media identification, before joining PRTD. Her research at LC has included accelerated aging methods, assessment of zeolites in... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 9:25am - 9:50am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E-F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:00am

Exhibit Hall Break
AIC’s 41st Annual Meeting features the largest U.S. gathering of suppliers in the conservation field. Mingle with exhibitors and discover new treatments and business solutions. For the current list of exhibitors, see inside back cover. Posters on a range of conservation topics also will be on view in the Exhibit Hall, with an author question-and-answer session.

Thursday May 30, 2013 10:00am - 10:30am
JW Marriott Griffin Hall 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

Panel: Collaboration in Design: Working with Architects at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA)
In July 2013, SFMOMA will break ground on a two-year expansion project that will more than double its overall size. Cross-disciplinary expert teams were convened during project design development to affirm the museum’s promise to its collection while also realizing its broader vision to enhance visitor experience and public access.

The SFMOMA expansion is subject to one the most rigorous sustainable building requirements in the country, the City of San Francisco’s Green Building Ordinance. The ordinance requires that the new addition achieve at least LEED Gold certification and an energy reduction of 15% or better over California’s energy code. SFMOMA thus must balance its commitment to preserve works in the collection with the demand to maximize energy efficiency and minimize its carbon footprint.

Design of the 84,000 sq. ft. of new galleries was guided by the vast array of contemporary art forms that will be on display, a wish for diverse gallery experiences ranging from the animated to the contemplative, expanded educational programming including live performance, and more admission-free areas.

In order to build broad consensus among the architects and museum curators, conservators, registrars, art handlers and engineers about gallery scale, lighting, and finishes, SFMOMA constructed a gallery mock-up where works from the collection were installed to consider details such as size, ceiling configuration, light fixtures and flooring.

The Board's commitment to the museum’s collection and a strengthened pledge to art conservation led to a broad rethink about effective collection stewardship. Over two-thirds of the roughly 30,000 works in SFMOMA’s collection will remain on-site when the museum re-opens in 2016. Galleries, study rooms, conservation studios, work rooms and storage vaults, both on and off site, have been configured as part of an integrated, programmatic whole. Works residing off-site will be consolidated from four, discrete storage locations within the larger SF Bay Area into a newly purchased and retrofitted Collections Center twenty minutes from the downtown museum.

This panel will present a number of design outcomes for the SFMOMA expansion with hopes that it will foster productive dialog in the field of conservation and museums at large.

Speakers
SA

Samuel Anderson

Principal, Samuel Anderson Architects
I am an architect whose firm specializes in the design of conservation labs, collections storage, and other museum/library/archive facilities.
RB

Ruth Berson

Deputy Museum Director for Curatorial Affairs, SFMOMA
Ruth Berson, deputy museum director, curatorial affairs, has worked at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) since 2000. Berson was promoted from director of exhibitions to deputy director, exhibitions and collections, in 2002, after serving as acting co-director of the museum from 2001 to 2002; she was promoted again to her current position in November 2010, with new responsibility for the four collecting departments' curatorial... Read More →
JS

Jill Sterrett

Head of Conservation and Collections, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Jill Sterrett has been the Director of Collections at the San Francisco Museum of Modern since 2001. In this role, she oversees five allied departments in a museum structure that is designed to foster working sites of collaboration serving the museum’s programs and its collection. Jill has been on staff at SFMOMA for the last 25 years, first as Paper Conservator (1990-2000) and then Head of Conservation (2000-2001). She has also worked at... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 10:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E-F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

12:00pm

AIC's Photographic Materials Group - 'Conservators as Diplomats: Preserving Ernest Hemingway’s Legacy in Cuba'
Ernest Hemingway lived in Cuba longer than he lived anywhere else—from 1939-1960, one third of his life. His Cuban home, Finca Vigía or Lookout Farm, was the only stable residence of his adult life. At the Finca he wrote many of his finest works - For Whom the Bell Tolls, Across the River and Into the Trees, The Old Man and the Sea, A Moveable Feast, Islands in the Stream, and numerous short stories and articles. Hemingway’s long and productive life in Cuba is the period that has been studied and understood the least due to the embargo.

Finca Vigía contains original book and short story manuscripts, letters, telegrams, post cards, over 3000 photographs, his fishing tackle and gun collection, furniture, fine art and map collection, scrap books, and a 9000 volume library containing rare first editions of his books and those of his contemporaries. Approximately 20% of the books have Hemingway’s musings written in the margins. Not only did he write in the house, he also wrote on its very walls. Preserved under glass on the bathroom wall, are Hemingway’s penciled daily records of his obsession with his weight and blood pressure.

Finca Vigía has been maintained as a museum for the past 50 years. The Cuban Ministry of Culture has cared for the collections admirably under difficult conditions. Despite diligent efforts, they did not possess the financial or technical resources to maintain the home and its contents. Derelict and distressed, Finca Vigía and its collections were in danger of destruction from heat, humidity, pests, and the sheer passage of time. A United States non-profit, The Finca Vigía Foundation, was founded 10 years ago to preserve Hemingway’s legacy in Cuba. The Foundation has established an unprecedented collaboration between Cuban and U S governments to conserve the Hemingway documents and completed the architectural preservation of the main house.

With very little money, and in the midst of a dauntingly difficult political climate, this project has flourished, grown, and won international acclaim. The bi-national collaboration has been cited as a “harbinger of better times” by both governments. Throughout the past decade, the Foundation has brought US conservators to Havana -- including specialists in architecture, engineering, books and paper, metal, photography, textiles, taxidermy, and digital imaging -- to offer advice and provide conservation trainings.

Speakers
avatar for Mary-Jo Adams

Mary-Jo Adams

Executive Director, Finca Vigia Foundation, Inc.


Thursday May 30, 2013 12:00pm - 2:00pm
JW Marriott 101-102 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

12:00pm

AIC's Objects Specialty Group Luncheon & Tips Session
$25.

A Comparison of Fumed Silica and Precipitated Silica as Matting Agents for Acrylic Paint
Elizabeth La Duc, Student, Buffalo State College, Graduate Intern, The Walters Art and Dr. Aaron Shugar, Associate Professor, Buffalo State College

Hot Melt Cutting of Stabiltex with a Soldering Iron
Geneva Griswold and Ayesha Fuentes, Students, UCLA Getty Program

Ultraviolet Marking of Beadwork Restorations
Linda Roundhill, Art and Antiquities Conservation, LLC

A New Barrier Coating to Reduce Tarnish on Silver Art
Glenn Gates, Conservation Scientist, Walters Art Museum; Amy Marquardt, University of Maryland-College Park; Terry Drayman-Weisser, Walters Art Museum; Eric Breitung, E-squared Art Conservation Science; and Raymond Phaneuf, University of Maryland-College Park

Loss Compensation of Leather and Animal Skins
Steven O’Banion, Advanced Fellow, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; Erin A. Anderson, Project Conservator, Brooklyn Museum; and Marlene Yandrisevits, Graduate Fellow, Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation

Sponsors
avatar for Kremer Pigments

Kremer Pigments

General Manager, Kremer Pigments Inc.
KREMER PIGMENTS has been discovering and redeveloping historical pigments and mediums since 1977. Our professional assortment consists of over 100 different mineral pigments made from precious and semiprecious stones, which we offer in various grinds and qualities, over 70 natural earth colors, several hundred ground glass pigments, mineral and organic pigments. Binders, glues, balsams, natural resins, oils, etc round off our pallet. Our large... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 12:00pm - 2:00pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

12:00pm

Linking the Environment and Heritage Conservation 2013: Presentation, Tips and Discussion
The Committee on Sustainable Conservation Practices (CSCP) is hosting its second luncheon session at the 41st AIC Annual Meeting in Indianapolis. The session will consist of three parts: a progress report on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) multi-phase project quantitatively evaluating each aspect of loans and exhibitions; two tips presentations; and an open microphone session where attendees will have the opportunity to present and discuss sustainable best practices. The first part of the session will be a progress report on the CSCP collaboration with Northeastern University environmental engineers to determine the most and least sustainable aspects of loans and exhibitions. The report will be followed by a tips session where two conservators will present their new “green” best practices. An open mic session will conclude, where attendees will be encouraged to discuss their latest sustainable work methods and ask questions to spark dialogue on sustainability issues in conservation.

Thursday May 30, 2013 12:00pm - 2:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom J 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Architecture) Breaking the Cycle: The Role of Monitoring in the Watts Towers Conservation Project
Since January 2011, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) has worked under contract to the City of Los Angeles on the conservation of the Watts Towers, a National Historic Landmark sculptural site. Created by Sabato Rodia between 1921 and 1954, the Towers include three towers, the tallest measuring 99.5 feet in height, and eight additional sculptures constructed of scrap iron covered in Portland cement and ornamented with scavenged glass and tile fragments, sea shells, stones, and other material.. LACMA’s mandate is to update the site’s conservation and maintenance protocol through written guidance, as well as provide daily preservation maintenance.

Due in part to the non-traditional aspects of Rodia’s construction method, the Towers are subject to deterioration including mortar cracking, loss of ornaments, and corrosion of the steel elements. Cracks often occur and reoccur in areas of past restoration. Past restorers often adopted a whole-scale approach involving removal of mortar shell and replacement of steel armature when corrosion was suspected to play the leading role. In order to better understand the various causes of deterioration, LACMA is engaged in monitoring on a variety of fronts, including thermal, vibration, and corrosion monitoring. Preliminary data indicate that the deterioration of the Towers is more complex than previously thought. Conservation materials currently being evaluated have been identified in view of requirements for flexibility and improved adhesion. Migrating corrosion inhibitors will also be evaluated. By utilizing amended mortars, elastomeric crack-fillers and adhesives better suited to the unique conditions of the Towers, it is hoped to minimize the need for more aggressive structural intervention in the future.

Speakers
BK

Blanka Kielb

Assistant Conservator, Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Blanka Kielb is a graduate of the Queen's University Program in Art Conservation, where she earned a Master of Art Conservation degree in paintings, and currently resides in Los Angeles. Her professional interests include treatment of painted surfaces with a focus on wall paintings and architectural interiors. Blanka has contributed to a number of large-scale projects, including the treatment of historic ceilings and murals in the U.S. Capitol... Read More →
FP

Frank Preusser, PhD

Senior Conservation Scientist and Project Manager, Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Frank D. Preusser received his PhD in chemistry in 1973 from the Technical University in Munich, Germany.  From 1973 to 1983 he was head of the scientific laboratory of the Doerner Institut in Munich. From 1983 to 1993 he worked at the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles where he held the positions of Director of Scientific Research, Head of Publications, Associate Director for Programs, and Acting Co-Director.   Since... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Book and Paper) Splintered: The History, Structure, and Conservation of American Scaleboard Bindings
The study of historical bookbindings can yield important information about traditional craft practices, the development of the book trade, and trends in readership. Quintessentially American scaleboard bindings—which feature thin, planed wooden boards—are of particular interest because so little is known about their origins and usage in colonial America or the extent of their survival in today’s research libraries. This study identified eighty-five early American scaleboard bindings containing imprints from 1686 to 1833. The majority of the examined books were small, with horizontal-grain, ring-porous scaleboards and stabbed bindings. In nine bindings, the boards were identified as ash, a wood that has not been traditionally associated with bookbinding. Although most boards were split or radially cut, others were tangentially cut, suggesting that scaleboard did not have a single source such as the shingle industry. Simple full-leather bindings prevailed until the 1790s; quarter-leather bindings with paper sides dominated thereafter. The study group also included bindings in full canvas, full paper, and full printed paper over quarter-bound boards. The majority of books printed prior to 1760 originated in Boston, while the majority of those printed thereafter were from New York, Philadelphia, and towns scattered across New England. More than 50 percent of the works bound in scaleboard were theological texts or schoolbooks, but the variety in content increased dramatically over the study period. Books in later decades also contained poetry, advice, etiquette, literature, and trade information; sewn binding structures, whether on raised or recessed cords, were more common on these less ephemeral texts. In addition, complex endsheet structures with board linings as well as pastedowns were observed only on sewn bindings between 1781 and 1796. Although the abbreviated binding structures placed the books at risk of textual loss, and the thin wooden boards were susceptible to chipping, splitting, and breakage, most of the examined bindings were intact. Because of their historical value, damaged scaleboard bindings should be preserved through proper housing and careful handling rather than extensive conservation treatment. Working with librarians to identify and document such bindings will spur scholarly research and ensure appropriate care for these unassuming but important books.

Speakers
RW

Renée Wolcott

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow, Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Objects) Bon Appétit? Plastics in Julia Child's Kitchen
In 2001, Julia Child donated the kitchen from her Cambridge, Massachusetts home that was the set for her cooking shows in the 1990s to the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History (NMAH). As a kitchen that was in use from 1961-2001, plenty of plastics ranging from silicone spatulas to a Rubik’s Cube came into the collection along with more traditional kitchen items.

Soon after the acquisition, NMAH opened the exhibition Bon Appétit! Julia Child’s Kitchen at the Smithsonian. What was meant to be a temporary exhibit proved so popular that it remained up for a decade. In 2010, NMAH staff began planning for a new exhibition space that will include the kitchen. The new exhibit, FOOD: Transforming the American Table, 1950-2000 opened in November 2012. In preparation for the exhibit, in 2011 students from the Museum Studies Program at The George Washington University worked under the supervision of a professor and objects conservator, Mary Coughlin, and NMAH curators to assess the current condition of the objects and make recommendations to better incorporate preventive conservation into the new exhibit.

During the class, it was discovered that several of the plastics are not aging well. These included dishwashing gloves that were originally blue but turned black on exposed surfaces, a plastic dish rack that is weeping, Julia’s personal phonebook encased in a degrading PVC binder, a bulb baster that is now completely rigid, and silicone spatulas, some of which have discolored while others are weeping. As some plastics age they can emit acidic vapor, so A-D (acid-detecting) Strips were used to monitor the plastics in the kitchen. Results from using the A-D Strips showed that several of the plastics are actively off-gassing acids.

The plastics in the kitchen proved to be a prime example of the issues that will be faced more and more as contemporary objects made of plastics enter museums. One hope is that the new exhibition’s improved lighting and environmental controls will at least not accelerate the rate of some of the degradation. A comparison between conditions in the old and new exhibitions will be presented.

The discussions between the curators, conservator, and students, who are studying to become collections managers, regarding whether or not to continue to display the degrading plastics were interesting. Conservators and collections managers generally do not want to leave an object on display when it is known to be degrading and has the potential to negatively impact nearby materials. But when considering the curatorial perspective, how much of an impact will be made by removing original artifacts? Do you replace them with reproductions? At what point is the kitchen no longer in its original state as used by Julia Child? The intersection of the wish to be as authentic as possible even if it means displaying deteriorating plastics and the desire to preserve these objects proved to be an intriguing aspect of this project.

Speakers
MC

Mary Coughlin

Assitant Professor, Musuem Studies Program, The George Washington University
Mary Coughlin is an Assistant Professor in the Museum Studies Program at The George Washington University where she teaches preventive conservation classes. Mary also teaches in and administers the distance education Museum Collections Management and Care Graduate Certificate Program. She is a 2005 graduate of the Winterthur / University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation where she specialized in Objects Conservation and minored in... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Development of Artificial Aging Parameters of Modern Acrylic Paints to Better Mimic Long-Term Outdoor Urban Exposure
Works of art kept in outdoor environments, particularly objects and mural paintings, are vulnerable to deterioration though photodegradation, oxidation, and mechanical abrasion, no matter how well they are treated or maintained. Analysis of art materials using analytical techniques, such as LC-MS, FTIR, terahertz spectroscopy, and SEM-EDX, can help provide an improved understanding of the composition of modern artists' acrylic paints. However, when trying to determine the aging characteristics of outdoor painted artworks, there is difficulty in determining which artificial (accelerated) aging method best corresponds to the real-time outdoor exposure conditions.
Correlation between artificial aging and long-term outdoor urban exposure often lacks fidelity, as photocatalytic reactions are exacerbated in the aging chamber, particularly photooxidation. However, reactions under unpredictable conditions (e.g. weather: freeze/thaw cycling, relative humidity, snow, ice, rain) are not easily mimicked using weatherometers (QUV) or light aging chambers (Atlas xenon arc). The implied advantages of artificial aging in material studies are that the extreme rate of aging and quicker failure can help scientists predict long-term stability and durability of art materials within a reasonable amount of time. Yet a question remains as to how do hours of exposure in an aging chamber match the hours of natural exposure. For example, Philadelphia has an annual average of 62% possible sunshine. Therefore, on a day with 8 possible hours of sunshine, a cultural heritage object might receive only 5 hours of sunlight exposure. How do those 5 hours correlate to 5 hours in the light chamber? Previous research involved artificially and naturally aged UV-protective coatings on artist’s acrylic paints; however, the data collected from the chemical, mechanical, and thermal assessment of these aged samples did not always correspond, as expected. A more recent project involving prepared samples of artists’ acrylic paints may provide a better correlation of artificial aging to natural aging in a Mid-Atlantic environment and help develop modern protocols for replicating natural outdoor exposure in laboratory-based experiments.

In this study, acrylic paint films were naturally and artificially aged and both sample sets were periodically analyzed to determine the different stages of change and deterioration in the surfactant, paint binder, and commonly-used outdoor pigments, and to examine the relationship between the two aging protocols. Environmental conditions (intensity of solar illumination, rainfall, temperature, % RH) were recorded using National Weather Service data. The average environmental conditions were replicated as closely as possible in the weatherometer during artificial aging. It is hoped that this paper can offer improved guidelines for future conservation research projects involving the use of artificial aging of contemporary art materials.

Speakers
AJ

Amanda J. Norbutus

Visiting Assistant Professor, Rollins College
AMANDA J. NORBUTUS, Ph.D., is a visiting assistant professor of chemistry at Rollins College (Winter Park, FL) where she works with the Cornell Fine Arts Museum and the Rollins College Archives with objects such as Mr. Rogers’ iconic sweater and shoes. She is a lecturer in the science of art materials, art conservation, as well as criminalistics and forensics at Rollins College and an instructor for the NSF Chemistry Collaborations, Workshops... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Textiles) Finding the Ease: Approaches to Mounting and Installation at the Art Institute of Chicago
Recent conservation in the Department of textiles at the Art Institute of Chicago reflects the increasingly prevalent philosophy for those responsible for the wellbeing of historic collections of doing more with less. New buildings, gallery re-installations, construction projects, storage moves, exhibitions, loans, and multiple rotations have become routine in a year’s projects for the permanent collection. Over the course of a year there are about 200 textiles in rotation throughout the museum—100 in the permanent textile galleries and another 100 in other galleries throughout the museum. At the same time the economic downturn resulted in an austerity plan, which included a 50% staff reduction in the Department of textiles as well as the art handling staff.

The increased demand for textiles is both exciting and challenging. For the staff at the Art Institute it has reaffirmed the need to develop strategies to decrease stress and strain on the collection as well as the staff. It has also created the opportunity to rethink exhibition demands, considerations and priorities. In particular this paper will focus on the display of large African textiles, longer lengths of yardage, and tapestries.

The African textile collection contains a number of large artworks of varying dimensions. The size of each piece precludes storing individual mounts/platform for each rotation. A modular mount and platform was designed to accommodate a variety of needs and sizes of textiles ranging from 44-115 inches in height and 170-220 inches in width, eliminating mount production and reducing storage issues.

For extra long lengths of yardage, a “roll-top” system was redesigned to hold un-exhibited sections of the textile on the storage pipe suspended in a cradle above the mount. The system allows a textile to move from storage to the mount and back to storage, all on the same pipe, reducing handling. The cradle can accommodate multiple angles to adjust to the needs of the textile or display, while maintaining a smooth transition from pipe to mount.

A tapestry installation protocol was developed for The Divine Art: Four Centuries of European Tapestry an exhibition of over 70 historic tapestries from the permanent collection. As at least 7 artworks needed to be installed per day, it was necessary to create an efficient and safe system that reduced staff fatigue. A newly designed hanging system incorporating a custom-built I-beam and receiving shelf was implemented. Existing hydraulic lifts with platforms were fitted with purpose-built arms to raise and lower the tapestries. The combination of all three elements allowed for a controlled, safe and smooth installation and de-installation of the artworks, while minimizing strain on the staff.

As textiles continue to gain popularity and prominence in the museum, there will continue to be a need for innovation in installation. The strategies in this paper, which are works-in-progress, have transformed some of the more challenging installations at the Art Institute into more routine activities for both the conservation and installation staff.

Speakers
LC

Lauren Chang

Conservator of Textiles, Art Institute of Chicago


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Discussion Session) Conservation Research: Who, What, Where, How and Why Not? - Discussion of the AIC Scientific Research Needs Survey
In the spring of 2012, the (Research and Technical Studies) group (RATS) distributed an online survey in order to better understand the current scientific practices of the conservation community. Goals of the survey included the following: learn more about the needs of AIC membership regarding scientific research and poll members on how AIC might assist members in meeting those needs; find out how members feel about working with both conservators and scientists on conservation research and gauge member interest in pursuing collaborations with conservators/scientists; and collect information that may be useful in facilitating collaborations via a new web resource sponsored by the NSF’s Chemistry Coalitions Workshops and Communities of Scholars (cCWCS) program.

A thoughtful review and discussion of the survey results has been undertaken by RATS and AIC to determine how to assist members in locating the resources needed to properly understand and care for heritage objects through scientific inquiry. To this end, a (Discussion Session) at the 41st Annual Meeting is proposed in which a panel of RATS members will present some of the major trends demonstrated by the survey and lead a discussion of those trends with audience members.

Members of the panel (Discussion Session) will include RATS founding member and head of the NCPTT Materials Conservation Program, Mary Striegel, Head of the Preservation Division of the Arizona State Museum and Professor at the University of Arizona, Nancy Odegaard, Senior Conservation Scientist at the Indianapolis Museum of Art, Gregory Smith, Professor of Chemistry at Millersville University, Patricia Hill, and Chief of the Preservation Research and Testing Division of the Library of Congress, Fenella France.

The perspectives of these scientists and professors combined with the viewpoints from the general AIC membership shared at this (Discussion Session) will be compiled after the meeting in order to form recommendations for possible future AIC initiatives, including workshops, webinars, or the formation of a specialized AIC network.

Speakers
avatar for Stephanie Porto

Stephanie Porto

Owner & Paper Conservator, Niagara Art Conservation
Stephanie Porto is owner and paper conservator at Niagara Art Conservation (NAC) in Niagara Falls, Canada. Stephanie holds a Master of Arts and Certificate of Advanced Study in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College (Buffalo, NY). In addition, she has gained conservation experience working under several talented professionals in private practice in western New York and at various world-renowned museums including the Metropolitan Museum of... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:00pm - 3:30pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Collection Care) Preservation Planning Discussion Session
The Collection Care Network (CCN) is AIC’s newest network, established in January 2012. Its members bring together the preservation knowledge and skills of AIC members and link these with institutions seeking best practices for preservation. The CCN is both a reference source and a forum in support of the preservation work of conservators and other collection care practitioners. The CCN works to serve those professionals and volunteers, who are archaeologists, architects, archives staff, art handlers, collection care specialists, collection managers, conservators, curators, engineers, entomologists, exhibit designers, facilities staff, historic house museum staff, library staff, mount makers, preparators, preventive conservation materials vendors, registrars, and technicians as well as many others who aid in preserving our cultural heritage

2:00 – 3:30
Part 1: The Rational-Comprehensive Planners versus The Incrementalists

Introduction
Joelle Wickens, Chair, Collection Care Network; Associate Conservator, Preventive Team Head and Winterthur Assistant Professor, Winterthur Museum/University of Delaware

Overview of CCN’s Collections Managers Survey Results
Rebecca Fifield, Vice-Chair, Collection Care Network; Collections Manager for the Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Measure Risk, Then Plan Preservation
Lisa Elkin, Director of Conservation, American Museum of Natural History

Establish Guiding Principles, Then Manage through Incrementalism
Katy Lithgow, Head Conservator, UK National Trust

Group Discussions
Moderated by Robert Waller, Protect Heritage Corp. and Catharine Hawks, Conservator, NMNH Smithsonian Institution

Participants will be asked to discuss, in small group format, the pros and cons, best examples, hurdles and important caveats of the two approaches to preservation planning as introduced by Lisa Elkin and Katy Lithgow.

3:30 – 4:00
BREAK

4:00 – 5:30
Part 2: Prescriptive Standards versus Performance Management

Introduction and Recap of Part 1
Joelle Wickens, Chair, Collection Care Network; Associate Conservator, Preventive Team Head and Winterthur Assistant Professor, Winterthur Museum/University of Delaware

Importance of Standards and Guidelines to Inform Preventive Conservation Initiatives in Museums
Kristen Overbeck Laise, Vice President, Collections Care Programs, Heritage Preservation

Standards Make Us Myopic: We Focus on Specific Values at the Expense of Real Issues
James Reilly, Founder and Director, Image Permanence Institute

Group Discussions
Moderated by Robert Waller, Protect Heritage Corp. and Catharine Hawks, Conservator, NMNH Smithsonian Institution

Participants will be asked to discuss, in small group format, the pros and cons, best examples, hurdles and important caveats of the two approaches to preservation planning as introduced by Kristen Liaise and James Reilly.

Session Wrap-up

Organizers plan to have scribes recording discussions to help frame presentations/sessions/workshops for AIC 2014.

Speakers have been encouraged to prepare their talks for publication, either in print form or as part of CCN web-based resources.

Thursday May 30, 2013 2:00pm - 5:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:30pm

(Architecture) An Evaluation of the Conservation History of Chagall’s Les Quatre Saisons
Les Quatre Saisons (The Four Seasons) mosaic by artist Marc Chagall, was created as a gift to the people of Chicago by the artist and constructed in 1974 with funding by the Prince Charitable Trust. The mosaic consists of tesserae placed on precast concrete panels, which are mounted on a cast in place concrete structure, and is approximately 70 feet long by 14 feet wide by 10 feet tall. The mosaic is located at Chase Tower Plaza (formerly First National Bank of Chicago Plaza) in Chicago, Illinois. Stewardship of the mosaic is overseen by a consortium of Chicago arts entities including the Art Institute of Chicago

Due to its installation in an exterior environment and the materials and methods selected for its initial construction, the mosaic is highly susceptible to distress related to weather. Since its installation, several projects have been initiated to clean, repair, and monitor the mosaic. The first repair project commenced in 1988, fourteen years after the mosaic was installed, after extensive deterioration of the walls and original mosaic top surface was observed. At that time, large areas of the walls were restored and the top was replaced with granite panels. Following further deterioration observed in the 1990s, WJE conducted an investigation and laboratory studies, and developed the design of repairs implemented in 1993.. In addition, a canopy featuring a glazed roof to allow light to enter the space below, and open sides to preserve the immediacy of the viewer experience, was constructed to protect the mosaic.

WJE has had an ongoing relationship with the mosaic since performing the assessment and repairs in the early 1990s, including vibration monitoring during repairs to the adjacent plaza and monitoring during the recent micro-abrasive cleaning of adjacent Chase Tower. Since completion of the 1993 repair program and construction of the protective canopy, only minor repairs and gentle cleaning have been required to the mosaic. Most recently, WJE conducted a condition assessment (2010) and performed cleaning the walls of the mosaic and the reinstallation of a few delaminated tesserae (2011).

This presentation will explore the original materials and methods of the mosaic’s construction and the role of environmental and physical site conditions in the creation of early-forming distress conditions, as well as the results of repair methods used in the 1980s. The investigation approach and methods as well as the analytical methods used to develop the 1993 repairs will be discussed, along with the investigation findings and recommendations, and the techniques used in the recent repair program. It has been nearly twenty years since the last large-scale repair program, and the 2010‒2011 condition assessment and repair program support the benefits of laboratory studies to guide the 1990s repairs, as well as the effectiveness of the protective canopy. The presentation will also address the monitoring efforts implemented to protect the mosaic since 1993.

Speakers
JC

Jamie Clapper Morris

Architectural Conservator/Licensed Architect, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.
DS

Deborah Slaton

Principal, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:30pm

(Book and Paper) Conservation of Dieter Roth's “Snow”
Brenna Campbell, Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Conservation, The Museum of Modern Art; Scott Gerson, Associate Paper Conservator, The Museum of Modern Art; Erika Mosier, Paper Conservator, The Museum of Modern Art

Throughout his career, Swiss-German artist Dieter Roth employed the book format as a key element of his work. Defining “book” as “a community of like-minded things,” Roth stretched and challenged conventional ideas about the nature of artists’ books, employing new formats and techniques to expand the book beyond its traditional boundaries.

In 1964, Roth began a residency at the Philadelphia Museum College of Art, with the intention of creating a limited-edition artist’s book. Over the course of three months, he produced about 6,000 drawings, prints, photographs, and notes, binding several hundred of them into a volume which he intended to photograph and reprint as a paperback. The ill-fated edition was never produced. In the 1970s, Roth constructed a table and two chairs to house nd display the book, which he called Snow.

Since its acquisition by The Museum of Modern Art in 1998, Snow has been exhibited a handful of times, always with the album lying open on the table between the two chairs, and a small number of works from the book removed and hung, framed, on the wall. The work’s complexity and its poor condition have limited the ways in which it can be shown. An exhibition opening in February 2013 provided an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of Snow, employing conservation treatment, scientific analysis, and digital imaging of the work to change and enhance the ways that viewers and scholars can access, interpret, and enjoy one of Dieter Roth’s most unique and important book projects.

Speakers
avatar for Brenna Campbell

Brenna Campbell

Rare Books Conservator, Princeton University Library
Brenna Campbell is a Rare Books Conservator at Princeton University Library. She has an MS in Information Studies and a Certificate of Advanced Study in Library and Archives Conservation from The University of Texas at Austin. She completed internships and fellowships at Harvard University Library’s Weissman Preservation Center, The Morgan Library & Museum, and The Museum of Modern Art, and was Assistant Conservator at The University of Iowa... Read More →
SG

Scott Gerson

Associate Conservator, The Museum of Modern Art
EM

Erika Mosier

Paper Conservator, Museum of Modern Art


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:30pm

(Objects) Establishing Conservation in an Unconventional Venue in Okinawa
A new conservation initiative was recently established at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST). The OIST Conservation Project was envisioned as a way to use the cutting-edge scientific resources available at the Institute to help in the preservation and study of Okinawan cultural property. Reversing the usual order, the project was founded without already having an art collection or museum partner. This presentation will discuss the creation of the OIST Conservation Project, including setting up a conservation lab at a science university and securing museum partners, followed by a description of recent accomplishments in the investigation of Okinawan cultural materials.

As a new international and interdisciplinary science university located in Okinawa, OIST epitomizes a contemporary situation. The Institute strives to reinvent how Japanese higher education approaches science while also giving back to the Okinawan community. Located on a small island south of the Japanese mainland, modern technology keeps OIST connected with the rest of the world and facilitates OIST’s researchers in their ability to make advancements in their fields. In turn, the Okinawan islands (formerly the Ryukyu kingdom) have an interesting international history of their own, which has greatly influenced Okinawa’s art and culture. Additionally, the unforgiving climate combined with destruction associated with World War II makes the preservation of Okinawa’s cultural property a critical issue. OIST’s access to an abundance of innovative scientific tools has sparked creative thinking in the study of Okinawan artifacts.

With the lofty goals of contributing to the preservation of Okinawan culture and embarking on exciting art and science collaborations that would captivate the public, OIST was put in the position of “selling” its proposed conservation initiative to local museums, as their involvement is critical to the success of the program. In time, the cooperation of two institutions, the Yomitan Village History Folklore Museum and the Tsuboya Pottery Museum, was secured. These art and science collaborations involve conservation treatment as well as research into the museums’ collections. For example, the unique environment at OIST has allowed the before treatment examination of two sanshins (Okinawan string instruments) to lead to investigations into the origin of their leather coverings using mass spectroscopy to identify their proteins as well as experiments with DNA sequencing. OIST researchers are working to overcome the challenges of degradation and contamination in the analysis of these sanshins’ unique leathering coverings.

Ceramics have also played an important role in Okinawa. Therefore, the Conservation Project is working to characterize and provide a deeper understanding of Okinawan ceramics. The latest generation of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometers and X-Ray Diffractometers are being used in the investigation of these ceramics to identify materials, understand past manufacturing techniques, and determine firing temperatures. Most notably, this information will be used to differentiate between ceramics made on the Okinawan mainland and nearby Ishigaki Island. Other techniques under consideration for this project include X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) Spectroscopy.

The OIST Conservation Project has established a new model for how a conservation project can function. This international yet remote setting allows for a contemporary take on a conservation lab venue.

Speakers
AM

Anya McDavis-Conway

Conservator/Research Scientist, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology
Anya McDavis-Conway is a Research Scientist and Objects Conservator at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST). Since November 2011 she has founded a conservation lab and led collaborative projects between OIST and local museums, with whom she is studying and conserving Okinawan artifacts. Prior to this, Anya worked in the Conservation Department of the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs from 2006-2011. In New Mexico, she... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:30pm

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Gessoes: Porosity and the Effects of Capillary Action
Gessoes are a wide class of materials used in the surface preparation of art works. Traditionally the term refers to a white pigment, such as calcium carbonate or calcium sulfate, bound with an adhesive, such as hide glue. For modern artworks, however, the definition has expanded to include many materials that are compositionally very different but designed for the same purpose; that is, to prepare the surface for further work such as painting or gilding. In the field of paintings, gessoes are widely used, both by artists to prepare the support structure of the works and by conservators who commonly use gessoes to fill losses in the pictorial layer.

By their nature, gessoes facilitate the diffusion of fluids by capillary action. The diffusion characteristics of a material can affect many properties, including longevity, removal, and handling. More specifically in the conservation field, liquid diffusion can also cause components found within layers to migrate, which may result in the disruption of the pictorial layer. Such properties may also influence specific treatments, such as inpainting, in this way affecting the final appearance of the work of art.

This paper reports the measurement of the rate of diffusion of common cleaning solvents and inpainting media by attenuated total reflection - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for a variety of commercially and lab-prepared gessoes. This includes materials based upon acrylic polymer emulsions, as well as those based on a traditional hide glue binder.

Speakers
MD

Michael Doutre

Research Technologist, Queen's University
Michael Doutre entered the field of art conservation during his thesis for a Bachelor of Science in chemistry from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. After finishing his studies he began working as a research technologist in the Conservation Science Laboratory of the Art Conservation Program at Queen’s University, focusing on the chemical and physical behavior of gessoes. His research interests include instrumental chemical... Read More →
AA

Ashley A. Freeman

Managing Collection Environments, Getty Conservation Institute
AM

Alison Murray

Professor, Conservation Science, Queen's University, Art Conservation Program
HF

H. F. Shurvell

Adjunct Professor, Queen's University, Art Conservation Program
Emeritus professor of chemistry, Adjunct professor, Art Conservation program, | Infrared and XRF analysis


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:30pm

(Textiles) An Old Case of New Display: Contemporary and Historical Fashion at the Victoria & Albert Museum
Over the past 10 years, over 70% of the Victoria & Albert Museum’s public space has been transformed as part of an ambitious plan to turn the Museum into a 21st-century cultural destination. As part of this process the fashion display, housed in Gallery 40, was renovated from January 2011 to May 2012. This one million pound refurbishment included new ambient lighting, new paint, new flooring and new display spaces, but no new cases. Alongside the renovation of the permanent display, housed within the same gallery, the V&A launched a temporary exhibition entitled Ballgowns: 50 Years of British Glamour, which showcases a collection of gowns made by Britain’s most celebrated couturiers.

For these two projects, over 160 outfits were conserved and mounted for display. This paper will explore a number of challenges faced by the conservation and design teams to make a successful display in a less-than-ideal space. We will discuss the impact of having costume on semi-permanent open display including problems with touching, dust and light and how the design of the display can be manipulated to minimise potential damage. We will also look at the role of monitoring the environment and how this will affect the design of future displays planned for this space, including exhibitions of 1980’s fashion and wedding dresses.

Speakers
JH

Joanne Hackett

Senior Textile Conservator, Victoria & Albert Museum
avatar for Keira Miller

Keira Miller

Dress and Textile Display Specialist, The Victoria and Albert Museum


Thursday May 30, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:00pm

(Architecture) Bringing Modern Back: Restoring 1930’s Aluminum Finishes
Helen M Thomas-Haney, Conservator, Jablonski Building Conservation; and Xsusha Flandro, Senior Architectural Conservator, Jablonski Building Conservation

“Peer into the Future…ALCOA Aluminum is revealed a shining symbol of strength... lightweight… enduring beauty”- 1931 ALCOA Advertisement

In the 1930s aluminum was hailed as the new wonder material capable of withstanding weathering and structural stresses. Aluminum was being used for a wide variety of materials including architectural features such as windows, spandrel panels and decorative elements. ALCOA advertisements claimed that “Rain, hail, and snow fight Alcoa Aluminum and lose.”

In 1932, stamped cast and extruded aluminum was used to create the spandrel arch at the 4th Avenue station in Brooklyn. 4th Avenue is an elevated station on the BMT line of the New York City Transit System. The arch stretches across a four-lane street and stands approximately 30’ tall. It is currently listed as a state historic landmark.

The restoration of the 1932 aluminum paneled spandrel arch proved that aluminum is not as weather resistant as originally advertized. The initial goal of the aluminum restoration was to remove over-paint from the aluminum and reapply finishes to match the original appearance in-situ. However, the lack information on aluminum restoration complicated the project. Years of poor maintenance, layers of paint, and inappropriate interventions lead to more deterioration than was anticipated.

The restoration started with a review of the original drawings, specifications, and photographs. The drawings noted that three different types of mechanical finishes were to be used on different elements of the façade – “satin,” “sand-blasted,” and “sand-blasted deplated.” Paint removal mock-ups as well as an examination of paint samples, confirmed that these finishes were indeed installed. However, corrosion and pitting of the aluminum surfaces beneath the paint required that the corrosion be removed prior to re-instating the finishes.

Little information on the restoration of architectural aluminum and aluminum finishes exists. Extensive research using digital archives as well as resources through AIC and APT were used to define satin and sand blasted finishes while deplated was not found in this search.

It was the discovery of an early trade book, “Aluminum in architecture” (1932), which contained descriptions of different types of aluminum finishes, including “deplated” that provided the key to understanding these finishes. Deplating was the result of a process requiring the entire aluminum panel to be dipped in an electrically charged solution.

Cleaning the corrosion from the aluminum in situ became a challenge. Since blasting was rejected on grounds of containment, another method had to be found. Working with the contractor, another mechanical method was found using a rotary machine that would simulate a coarse “blasting,” but without the resulting debris.

Although aluminum was advertized as being corrosion resistant, it does corrode. Coatings are required to prevent the reaction of the aluminum with the atmosphere. New coating materials were researched that would be easy to apply in the field and be compliant with VOC regulations.

When the aluminum spandrel arch was finally cleaned and refinished, it once again showed what ALCOA had advertised in the 1930’s, “Aluminum is revealed a shining symbol of strength... lightweight… enduring beauty.”

Speakers
XC

Xsusha Carlyann Flandro

Senior Architectural Conservator, Jablonski Building Conservation, Inc.
avatar for Helen Thomas-Haney

Helen Thomas-Haney

Principal, Jablonski Building Conservation, Inc.
Helen M. Thomas-Haney is a Principal at Jablonski Building Conservation. She earned a BA in Historic Preservation from The University of Mary Washington and an MS in Historic Preservation from Columbia University. Helen has more than 14 years of experience as an architectural conservator. She is currently an adjunct professor in the Historic Preservation program at Columbia University. Helen is a member of several preservation professional groups... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:00pm

(Book and Paper) Flip, Flap and Crack: The Conservation of 400 years of Anatomical Flap Books
Anatomical flap books refer to a genre of 2-dimensional paper objects that contain multiple flaps of paper that as lifted reveal images of the many layers of human anatomy. The History of Medicine Collection (HOM) in the Rubenstein Library of Duke University contains a renown, unique, and fragile collection of these extraordinary materials. Considered by some scholars to be pre-cursors to the modern pop-up book, they are inherently vulnerable because their multiple small parts must be handled in order to fully experience the content. This HOM collection is particularly fragile as it contains materials dating from the 16th century with very small but stable pieces, to the 20th century with some brittle materials and acidic adhesives.

These materials see a great deal of “use”. Some of these volumes are displayed in show-and-tell sessions for educational purposes at the university, and In the spring of 2011 many of these volumes were placed on display in the library’s gallery for 3 months. Duke University Library prides itself on making their materials fully available to the university community, external scholars and the general public; anyone can come to use these volumes and flip through even the most fragile anatomical specimens.

The curator of the HOM collection has been integral in keeping an open communication with the conservation department, and through the past 2 years we worked together to prepare the items for display (including photographing many pages and creating videos for the exhibit), to properly display the items, and after the exhibition, to properly treat and house those items that needed attention. This paper will discuss methodology of special mounts for exhibit, special housings for a wide variety of “pieces” that often accompany or are a part of these works, as well as discussions of multiple treatments completed on the items.

Most of the early material from the 16th and 17th centuries was straight forward to treat, as the paper and adhesives were still in excellent condition; it was the modern material, especially from the 19th and 20th centuries that proved to be challenging. The newer flap anatomies were riddled with bad adhesives, brittle paper, and shoddy workmanship. Treatment of these materials required conversations with curators, compromises from conservation, and open mindedness all around. This paper is appropriate for the 2013 AIC session as it deals with contemporary use issues, contemporary objects, and contemporary techniques.

Speakers
MB

Margaret Brown

Conservator, Duke University Libraries


Thursday May 30, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:00pm

(Objects) Three Decades Later: A Status Report on the Silver Lacquering Program at Winterthur
Just over 30 years ago, Winterthur began its first museum-wide campaign of cellulose nitrate lacquer application to its collection of historical silver objects displayed predominately in open Period Room settings, i.e. not in display cases. This coating was chosen after testing demonstrated that it could protect the silver from tarnishing for a period of approximately 28 years under regular museum conditions. The lacquering program continues at Winterthur today for about 3,000 silver objects on permanent display in Period Rooms and in the Study Collection.

The authors will discuss a project currently underway, which began with a survey of 1,500 lacquered pieces performed to determine the effectiveness of the coating over the years. The results of this survey indicated that the coating had begun to fail on about 42% of the silver pieces. The results were also instrumental in the development of an intensive second campaign of cellulose nitrate lacquering begun in August 2011. As part of this initiative, funded in part by an IMLS grant, 750 silver objects will be re-lacquered, focusing on pieces where the lacquer is oldest or has failed for different reasons.

This paper will present the results of many observations made during the project to better understand the behavior of cellulose nitrate coatings on silver objects, its progressive change over time, the instances why it may or may not fail, and the methods used for the removal of old coatings and re-application of new ones. This will include the preliminary results of a study of failed/discolored coatings via FTIR, tarnish/corrosion products via Raman, FTIR, XRD, and XPS, and how the presence of lacquer may affect XRF analysis of silver as compared to incipient tarnish.

Coating with cellulose nitrate, a material with inherent chemical instability, may at first seem counterintuitive in conservation; to that effect, other preventive methods exist and are successfully in use at Winterthur to retard silver tarnishing. Yet the results of this study demonstrate how effective cellulose nitrate coatings have been within the open environment of Winterthur’s Period Rooms so long as the coating is properly applied, the objects appropriately handled, and with plans and resources in place for the coating’s eventual and “unavoidable” reapplication.

Speakers
KA

Kaitlin Andrews

Conservation Assistant, Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library
Kaitlin Andrews is a part-time Conservation Assistant at Winterthur Museum. Hired in 2011 specifically for the IMLS silver project, she is responsible for the documentation and treatment of the silver objects.
avatar for Margaret Bearden

Margaret Bearden

Graduate Fellow, Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation
Maggie Bearden is a conservation assistant in the metals laboratory at Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library and a conservation technician in the paper laboratory of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. She received her BA in Art Conservation and Art History from the University of Delaware.
WD

William Donnelly

Conservation Assistant, Winterthur Museum, Garden, and Library
William Donnelly is Conservation Assistant at Winterthur Museum. William’s role throughout the project was to maintain the supply inventory, approve treatment proposals, assist with training of the part-time Conservation Assistants in polishing practices, brush/spray coating and assist with the examination of completed coatings before objects were returned to the collection.
JM

Jennifer Mass

Senior Scientist, Winterthur Museum
Jennifer Mass is Senior Scientist at Winterthur’s Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory as well as Adjunct Faculty in the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation. She recently co-authored the chapter “Quantitative non-destructive analysis of historic silver alloys: X-ray fluorescence approaches and challenges” in the 2012 book publication Handheld XRF for Art and Archaeology.
CM

Catherine Matsen

Associate Scientist, Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library
Catherine Matsen is Associate Scientist at Winterthur’s Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory as well as Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation. She co-authored the chapter “Quantitative non-destructive analysis of historic silver alloys: X-ray fluorescence approaches and challenges” in the 2012 book publication Handheld XRF for Art and Archaeology.
BP

Bruno Pouliot

Senior Conservator, Objects and Winterthur Assistant Professor in Art Conservation, Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library
Bruno P. Pouliot is Senior Conservator of Objects at Winterthur Museum and Assistant Professor in Art Conservation in the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation. Since he joined the Winterthur staff in 1997, Bruno has continued the long-standing tradition of applying a lacquer to the silver collections at the museum. In 2009 he oversaw the survey of over 1500 lacquered silver objects to help assess their condition... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:00pm

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Water in Oil Microemulsions: A Novel Cleaning System for Acrylic Paints
This presentation will offer an update on the continuing collaborative research project between The Dow Chemical Company, the Getty Conservation Institute and Tate, which aims towards development and evaluation of novel systems for the cleaning of acrylic paints. Early findings from this project were presented at AIC Los Angeles 2009 and AIC Milwaukee 2010.

One class of potentially useful formulations that was identified in the early phase of the project was (water-in-oil) microemulsions; these are thermodynamically stable preparations consisting typically of water, non-miscible (hydrocarbon) solvent, co-solvent and surfactant. Such preparations offered the possibility of exploiting the cleaning efficacy associated with aqueous systems but in a predominantly solvent environment. A series of trial microemulsion cleaning formulations prepared by Dow have been evaluated by Tate and conservators at a series of training workshops focused on the practice of cleaning acrylic painted surfaces, and those evaluations have contributed to further refinement of the formulations for better compliance with the performance criteria desired by conservators.
The presentation will report the progress of this ongoing research collaboration focusing in particular on the development of the microemulsion systems. Three classes of microemulsions have been developed to offer a range in cleaning power and formulation latitude. All three systems contain an aliphatic hydrocarbon continuous phase. The systems differ in the type of surfactant and presence/level of an alcohol co-solvent. The co-solvent is required with some systems to enable a stable microemulsion structure. Phase diagrams for these preparations will be presented which demonstrate the range of proportions of the respective ingredients at which stable microemulsion systems are maintained; these include preparations that are (hydrocarbon) solvent-rich and low in surfactant and water content. Observations will also be presented on the comparative performance of these cleaning systems from the point of view of the practicing conservator, including their application to a wider range of substrates.

Speakers
MH

Melinda H. Keefe

Research Scientist, The Dow Chemical Company
avatar for Thomas Learner

Thomas Learner

Head of Science, Getty Conservation Institute
Tom Learner is Head of Science at the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) in Los Angeles. He has a PhD in chemistry (University of London, 1997), and a Diploma in conservation of easel paintings (Courtauld Institute of Art, London, 1991).  At the GCI, he oversees all scientific research being undertaken by the Institute and develops and implements projects that advance conservation practice in the visual arts.  Prior to this appointment... Read More →
BO

Bronwyn Ormsby

Principal Conservation Scientist, Tate
Dr. Bronwyn Ormsby is Principal Conservation Scientist at Tate London, UK, and is responsible for the Conservation Science and Preventive Conservation section of Tate's Conservation Department. Bronwyn has been at Tate since 2003 in various roles within the Conservation Science section and has a background in biochemistry and paintings conservation. As a scientist she specialises in the analysis of materials from works of art using FTIR... Read More →
avatar for Alan Phenix

Alan Phenix

Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Alan Phenix is a paintings conservator, conservation educator and conservation scientist. He is presently 'Scientist' at the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, working partly for the Collections Research Laboratory (CRL) and partly for the Modern & Contemporary Art Research group. His work concerns mainly the analysis of art materials and the study of artists' technique.


Thursday May 30, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:00pm

(Textiles) Merging Disciplines: Designing a Mount for a Matisse Serigraph
In the summer of 1946, Henri Matisse (1869-1954) lay bedridden as he directed his assistant, Lydia Delectorskaya, to pin a series of white paper cut-outs he had made on to the walls of his Paris studio. The motifs, inspired by memories of French Polynesia, included starfish, algae, leaves, and birds. Two years later, upon being approached by Zika Ascher, a London-based textile printer known for his innovative techniques, he agreed to turn the wall designs into two large serigraphs, known as Oceanie, la mer and Oceanie, le ciel. Made with oil bound pigments for the cut-out shapes, on dyed, un-primed linen representing the studio walls, each measures approximately five and a half feet high by twelve feet wide.

This presentation will discuss the conservation treatment and preparation for display of one of the editions of the Oceanie, le ciel. This particular serigraph had never been mounted before and was pristine save creases incurred in rolled storage. Unlike many of its counterparts, which had been stretched taught on strainers or stretchers in the same manner as paintings are traditionally displayed, sometimes apparently resulting in cracks and lifting of the pigment surface. Since stitching the body of the work to a support would have permanently altered the surface and been visually obtrusive, a system was developed to make the serigraph appear taught, while at the same time protecting the fabric edges and honoring the different surface characteristics of the paint and dyed linen. Working with a fine wood worker, a strainer with rounded edges was made to reduce distortions along the serigraph's perimeter as it wrapped to the back of the strainer. A cotton muslin support was brushed to produce a slight nap prior to being attached to the strainer, to help increase contact and “purchase” between the support and art work. Once the art work was pinned in place with even tension, the edges were hand-stitched to the back of the support, and the mounted serigraph was placed in an acrylic-covered frame. After two years of display in a private home, the system appears to have been successful, with no distortions or other effects evident due to environmental fluctuations.

Speakers
avatar for Yadin Larochette

Yadin Larochette

Textile Conservator, Larochette Textile Conservation LLC
Yadin Larochette received a B.A. in Art History from the University of California at Berkeley with honors in 1994 and an M.S. degree in Art Conservation from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in 2004, majoring in textiles with a concentration in preventive conservation. She founded Larochette Textile Conservation LLC, a private practice, in the Los Angeles area in 2005 after a year as an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow at the Los Angeles... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:30pm

Exhibit Hall Break
AIC’s 41st Annual Meeting features the largest U.S. gathering of suppliers in the conservation field. Mingle with exhibitors and discover new treatments and business solutions. For the current list of exhibitors, see inside back cover. Posters on a range of conservation topics also will be on view in the Exhibit Hall, with an author question-and-answer session.

Thursday May 30, 2013 3:30pm - 4:00pm
JW Marriott Griffin Hall 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

(Architecture) Fifteen Shades of Grey...? Paint Color Analysis on the Eames House
My interest in painting is the rediscovery of form through movement and balance and depth and light using this medium to recreate in a satisfying order my experiences of this world with a desire to increase our pleasure, expand our perceptions, and enrich our lives.

- Ray Eames, quoted from issue of California Arts & architecture, September 1943.

Built in 1949, the Eames House was the eighth in the Case Study House program published in the influential Arts & architecture magazine, between 1945 and 1966. The Eames House, designed by Charles and Ray Eames, was not only an iconic and hugely influential work of modern architecture but it was the first steel framed prefabricated project built for the Case Study House program which promoted new technologically advanced models for mass housing, and for which there was huge demand during the postwar years.

The GCI is currently providing the necessary investigation and scientific analysis to understand the environmental and physical conditions affecting the site, house, and its contents. As part of this ongoing investigation, the GCI will study the building materiality and determine conservation approaches and techniques appropriate to the house.

During 2011-2012, the initial investigative stages of the Eames House conservation program included an analysis of the paint stratigraphy including in situ paint excavations on the exterior steel frame of the building on multiple elevations to correlate the various paint layers identified in cross sections through optical microscopy with a macroscopic window of each layer. The in situ excavations confirmed the layers found in the samples in nearly all cases. A series of samples were taken from the house paintwork for microscopical examination and chemical analysis, with particular focus on matters of stratigraphy and pigment composition insofar as those things informed an understanding of the history of painting of the building.

Additionally, samples were obtained (and analyzed) from seven painted reference plates and a series of old paint cans retained at the house including fragments of putty detached in the 1994 Northridge earthquake, which offered a terminal chronological reference point. Paint samples were prepared as polished cross-sections, examined and photographed by optical microscopy, and analyzed by ESEM-EDS for spatially-resolved elemental composition. Selected samples were analyzed for organic binder composition by pyrolysis-GCMS and FTIR-spectroscopy.

The samples from both the interior and exterior metalwork trim showed good evidence for repeated campaigns of puttying, priming and painting. The interior and exterior metalwork were treated quite differently in terms of the patterns of their re-painting campaigns. In many instances, samples from the metalwork revealed complex stratigraphies consisting of many layers (putty, primer, paint); but these were often inconsistent across a specific group (i.e., interior metalwork; exterior metalwork). Organic binder analysis of the earliest paint layers indicated the presence of a synthetic (styrene-butadiene) rubber binder, again consistent with documentary evidence on the original decoration materials used.

Taken as a whole the paint analyses provided strong evidence that the earliest paint on the metal frame of the house was a distinctively-pigmented gray, which tallied with documentary reports of it being originally a “dark, warm gray”, rather than the black that it is now. A few of the samples examined included complex stratigraphies that illustrated the various repair campaigns to which the metalwork had been subjected since original construction.

Speakers
avatar for Thomas Learner

Thomas Learner

Head of Science, Getty Conservation Institute
Tom Learner is Head of Science at the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) in Los Angeles. He has a PhD in chemistry (University of London, 1997), and a Diploma in conservation of easel paintings (Courtauld Institute of Art, London, 1991).  At the GCI, he oversees all scientific research being undertaken by the Institute and develops and implements projects that advance conservation practice in the visual arts.  Prior to this appointment... Read More →
EM

Emily MacDonald-Korth

Associate Project Specialist, The Getty Conservation Institute
Emily MacDonald-Korth is a graduate of the Winterthur / University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation (Master of Science degree in the conservation of paintings,. MacDonald-Korth is currently an Associate Project Specialist in the Field Projects Department at the Getty Conservation Institute. Her professional interests include treatment of painted surfaces with a focus on wall paintings and architectural interiors, analysis of artist's... Read More →
avatar for Kyle Normandin

Kyle Normandin

Senior Project Specialist, Getty Conservation Institute
avatar for Alan Phenix

Alan Phenix

Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Alan Phenix is a paintings conservator, conservation educator and conservation scientist. He is presently 'Scientist' at the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, working partly for the Collections Research Laboratory (CRL) and partly for the Modern & Contemporary Art Research group. His work concerns mainly the analysis of art materials and the study of artists' technique.


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:00pm - 4:30pm
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

(Book and Paper) A Technical Study and Conservation Project of Roy Lichtenstein’s Screenprint on Plastic “Sandwich and Soda”, 1964
This case-study focuses on the technical study and conservation treatment of three impressions of Lichtenstein’s blue and red ink screenprint on clear plastic, Sandwich and Soda, 1964. Those prints are part of the portfolio X + X (Ten Works by Ten Painters), published by The Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Connecticut; 500 portfolios were printed.

In this study, the three prints owned by the Harvard Art Museums were examined and analyzed to better understand the technique, history and degradation process. Regarding the condition of those prints, two types of pressure-sensitive tapes were attached on the ink layer of two of the three prints, probably to hinge the artworks prior to its acquisition by the Harvard Art Museums. A previous attempt to test the sensitivity of the ink caused some visible damage, which prompted the need for more information about the materials before coming up with the appropriate conservation techniques. The outcome of the scientific analysis of the plastic support, pigments (red and blue) and tapes (carrier and adhesive) using GCMS, FTIR, Raman Spectrometry and LDI-MS (Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry) increased the understanding of the artwork and its current condition and allowed for appropriate treatment choices to be devised and executed.

Results: the plastic support is made of polystyrene, the ink binder is made of a variety of polystyrenes, one of the tapes is made of cellulosic material and the other tape (carrier and adhesive) is a PVA. This scientific research and conservation project included mock-ups on which to test appropriate tape removal techniques (heat, solvents, mechanical), the treatment to remove those tapes and reduce the adhesive residues and suggestions for better housing, hinging system and proper storage environment.

Other objects by Lichtenstein on unusual supports will be examined before the AIC 41st Annual Meeting in an attempt to contextualize Sandwich and Soda within the larger Pop Art Movement.

Speakers
avatar for Marion Verborg

Marion Verborg

Paper Conservator, Historical Archive of the City of Cologne
Marion Verborg is currently paper conservator and lab manager at the Cologne City Archive. After completing a B.S. in medicine and a B.A. in Art History, she graduated from the Sorbonne University conservation Program in Paris in 2010, specializing in paper and book conservation. Marion held various internships, including at the French National Library, Picasso Foundation in Malaga, Philadelphia Museum of Art, German History Museum in Berlin, and... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:00pm - 4:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

(Objects) Rethinking the Monumental: A Creative Approach to the Preservation of a Landmark Tony Smith Outdoor Sculpture
This presentation describes the collaborative planning process for treatment of Tony Smith’s Gracehoper, a monumental painted-steel outdoor sculpture at the Detroit Institute of Arts. Gracehoper created a particular challenge for conservators because of its large size, the strict aesthetic parameters for its surface appearance, and ongoing changes in the coatings industry. The physical and aesthetic criteria that shaped the treatment plan for this remarkably complicated object will be examined, as well as the shared decision-making process that involved a host of stakeholders, including conservators, a curator, the artist’s estate, a paint specialist, private funders, and the public.

Although initial efforts focused on a quest for the perfect paint, it was only when all the components of the project—including size, accessibility, paint technology, surface aesthetics, and cost—were weighed that a clear path for treatment revealed itself and an effective plan developed. Project delays allowed the conservators time to reexamine an initial proposal to repaint the sculpture by spray application, on site, with the necessary containment structure. Since the enormous tent needed for containment proved to be prohibitively expensive and an acceptable surface by spray application of the high-performance paint would be difficult to achieve outdoors, the conservators reconsidered their plan. In the 1970s, the artist/fabricator team had installed and coated the sculpture on site with roller-applied industrial paints to the artist’s satisfaction. Through consultation with the Tony Smith Estate, paint specialists, and a review of museum documentation, the conservators and curator explored replicating the artist’s original application methods while using today’s high-performance exterior coatings. The potential benefits were many, including easier application, easier local treatment of damaged surfaces in the future, and lower costs.

Careful and cooperative consideration of all the variables affecting the treatment led the project team to explore a variety of options. Together, they successfully developed a plan for treatment that is cost-effective, durable, and honors the artist’s original aesthetic requirements.



Speakers
avatar for Abigail Mack

Abigail Mack

Object Conservator, Mack Art Conservation LLC
Abigail Mack’s art conservation practice, located in New York’s Hudson Valley, focuses on modern and contemporary art with specific interest in large scale and monumental sculpture. Ms. Mack holds a Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree and a Master’s Degree in Art Conservation from State University of New York College at Buffalo. One of her specific interests is striking a balance between the preservation of the physical object and the artists... Read More →
JS

John Steele

Conservator of Sculpture and Decorative Arts, Detroit Institute of Arts
John Steele is Conservator of Sculpture and Decorative Arts at the Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA), where he has worked since 1990. His responsibilities include all aspects of preservation and treatment of three-dimensional works spanning all cultures and time periods in the museum’s encyclopedic collection. He received his Bachelor of Arts from Kalamazoo College and a Master of Arts from the State University College at Buffalo. His... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:00pm - 4:30pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Acrylic Emulsion Paint Films: Engineering a Microemulsion-Based Cleaning Approach
Water-borne emulsion polymer paints have enabled artists to move aesthetically far from traditional limitations of oil paints, but have left us with a cultural legacy replete with some of the greatest challenges in terms of conserving and exhibiting these treasures. Methods for treating and exhibiting traditional oil paintings have been developed over the last five centuries and their suggested display and storage parameters have principally influenced the design of the modern museum environment. The exact parameters for acrylic paintings, particularly those of cleaning methodology, are not as well understood. To better define acrylic cleaning considerations, we have examined pH, conductivity, and specific ion effects of potential aqueous cleaning solutions on a series of commercial acrylic paints in order to minimize the extraction of paint film components and minimize physical distortion of the paint film. 3-D microscopic techniques were developed to characterize the physical changes (volume and surface roughness) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to characterize the extent of extracted surface surfactant (Triton X-305) following paint film exposure to the cleaning solution. The tested paint films in this study exhibited an isotonic point below which swelling and extraction is significant, and above which the swelling and extraction is diminished. Experimentally, optimization of conductivity and the ionic species in solution reduced both the physical film changes and surfactant extraction from acrylic paint films; in contrast, pH appears to be of limited use in controlling aqueous cleaning effects. Additionally, there seems to be a specific ion effect for both swelling and de-swelling in acrylic paint films that can be rationalized through the Hofmeister Series.

Recent work funded through the National Science Foundation has focused on the formulation of microemulsions incorporating the optimized aqueous cleaning solution conditions to minimize aqueous solution contact with the paint film surface that included conservator-testing of optimized microemulsion cleaning solutions at the Cleaning Acrylic Painting Surfaces (CAPS 2012) workshop. 2D-desorption electrospray mass spectrometry (2D DESI-MS) is being explored for the first time for the chemical analysis and chemical imaging of art surfaces. DESI-MS and enhanced modes of the linear ion trap mass analyzer can chemically map surfactant on the paint surface before and after microemulsion cleaning and surfactant oxidation products during aging studies. 2D DESI is being investigated as a complementary technique to electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging to image free radicals and ESR silent photoproducts. Studies that investigate the environmental storage conditions (relative humidity, temperature, vibration) on the migration of surfactant to the paint film surface will also be discussed. The introduction of 2D DESI offers a new molecular imaging technique to the museum conservation laboratory and will likely find utility in projects outside the scope of the present work. This paper will discuss the findings of this study and suggest new guidelines for the cleaning of acrylic paintings in museums.

Speakers
AF

Anthony F. Lagalante

Professor of Chemistry, Villanova University
Doctoral degree in analytical chemistry from the University of Colorado (Boulder, CO, USA) in 1995. Professor of Chemistry at Villanova University. Involved in the development and application of spectroscopic and chromatographic methods to objects of cultural heritage. Autho's address: Department of Chemistry, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085-1699, USA.
AJ

Amanda J. Norbutus

Visiting Assistant Professor, Rollins College
AMANDA J. NORBUTUS, Ph.D., is a visiting assistant professor of chemistry at Rollins College (Winter Park, FL) where she works with the Cornell Fine Arts Museum and the Rollins College Archives with objects such as Mr. Rogers’ iconic sweater and shoes. She is a lecturer in the science of art materials, art conservation, as well as criminalistics and forensics at Rollins College and an instructor for the NSF Chemistry Collaborations, Workshops... Read More →
RC

Richard C. Wolbers

Assistant Professor of Art Conservation, University of Delaware
Masters degree in fine arts from the University of California (San Diego, CA, USA) in 1977. Masters degree in art conservation from the University of Delaware (Newark, DE, USA) in 1984. Associate Professor of Art Conservation in the Winterthur-University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation (WUDPAC). Involved in the preservation and conservation of paintings. Autho's address: Department of Art Conservation, 303 Old College, University of... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:00pm - 4:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

(Textiles) Renewing The Past: Pressure Mounting Two Large Fragmented Flags
Two silk flags, the Colours of the 3rd York Militia Regiment from the War of 1812, were recently treated in the textile lab of the Canadian Conservation Institute. The King’s Colour is a pieced Union Jack and the Regimental Colour has a plain field with attached silk fringe and silk embroidered motifs located in the two upper corners, centre and lower centre. Several challenges were posed by the powdering condition of the silk, the extreme degree of fragmentation and loss, the large size – each flag measures approximately 5’ by 8’ - and the materials and methods used in previous restorations. In 1927 both flags were stitched between coarse cotton netting. At some time in the 1970s the netted flags were mounted between Plexiglas and foam board. Unfortunately, double-sided carpet tape was used to attach the top edge of each flag to the foam board support. These two actions, i.e. sandwiching between net and pressure mounting, had served to preserve what remained of the flags. However, the materials used had become deteriorated, unsightly, and did not provide adequate support, consequently they were removed. The condition of the flags precluded other treatment options such as an adhesive lining or overlay stitched to a fabric covered support. Therefore netting and pressure mounting were repeated using contemporary conservation grade materials and techniques. This paper will focus on the second step, pressure mounting, using one of the flags, the Regimental Colour, as an example. The mount consists of an aluminum honeycomb panel covered with cotton flannel, needle punched polyester, cotton display fabric and custom dyed cotton fabric to compensate for losses.
Pressure mounting is often described in the literature for stabilizing and mounting relatively small, fragile textiles or large textiles that are more or less in one piece. Unfortunately, these flags presented another situation, i.e. large, powdering, and extremely fragmented textiles. In order to develop a treatment protocol, information was gathered from several conservators experienced with the technique. In addition, practical tests were done to determine how the needle punched polyester batting would compress over time under the weight of the acrylic glazing. Trials, conducted during the demonstration of a commercial thin-film pressure mapping system confirmed that recesses cut in the batting to accommodate the thickest embroideries did indeed equalize the pressure from the glazing. Unfortunately, the sensors were not sensitive enough to measure the actual pressure. Other aspects that will be discussed include the glazing and frame. A UV filtering acrylic was selected due to its abrasion resistant, anti-reflection, and most importantly, anti-static properties. An aluminum framing system was designed in house. It consists of an inner frame which reduces bowing of the acrylic, and an outer frame which attaches the glazing to the panel. How the netted flag was transferred onto the correct position on the dyed compensation fabric attached to the mount will also be described.

Speakers
JV

Jan Vuori

Senior Textile Conservator, Canadian Conservation Institute


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:00pm - 4:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:30pm

(Architecture) Lights, Color, Action! : The Restoration of “Color Fuses” in Downtown Indianapolis
One of the largest murals in the United States is located in downtown Indianapolis. Conceived in 1975 by renowned artist and graphic designer Milton Glaser (I ♥ NY, logos for D.C. Comics, Brooklyn Brewery, and much more), the 27’ x 672’ artwork titled Color Fuses features graduating bands of vibrant color and a kinetic lighting element. Despite its scale, originality, and the prestige of its creator, the piece was virtually unknown for much of the past 37 years. The lighting program originally called for never materialized and a lack of treatment and attention resulted in a surface marred by fading and weathering.

An extensive restoration project undertaken by the U.S. General Services Administration in 2012 returned the surface to its original brilliance and, for the first time, established the lighting sequence that the artist intended.

Years of research and collaboration amongst a diverse team of professionals that included architects, conservators, painters, lighting designers, GSA Fine Arts staff and the artist were required to complete the project. The restored piece features a mix of familiar and cutting edge technologies which allow for unique viewing experiences during both day and evening hours throughout the year.

Created for the iconic Minton-­‐Capehart Federal Building and located along Indianapolis’s storied American Legion Mall, Color Fuses can now be fully appreciated as an important cultural destination for residents and visitors alike.

GSA Fine Arts Specialist Caroline Sachay will present a review of the project, locating it within the context of GSA’s Art Program. Special attention will be paid to the original collaboration between Milton Glaser and architect Evans Woollen, the challenges faced by the restoration team, and the impact of the project on the building and surrounding urban landscape.


Speakers
CS

Caroline Sachay

Regional Fine Arts Officer, U.S. General Services Administration


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:30pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:30pm

(Book and Paper) Treatment and Housing Techniques for Pastel (Paintings) on Paper – Case Studies
Soyeon Choi, Senior Paper Conservator at the Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts; Jessica Makin, Manager of Housing and Framing Services at the Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts

Pastel paintings mounted on a wooden stretcher are vulnerable to tears and punctures caused by accidents or exerted tension under fluctuating environmental conditions. On the other hand, pastel paintings adhered to paperboard give rise to different condition problems associated mostly with warping or brittleness of the paperboard. In both cases, works that have received poor care frequently require treatment of scratches, abrasions, mold damage, and water damage. Here, we will engage in a comparative study of pastels on wooden stretcher and paperboard, addressing both treatment and housing issues involved in each.

In the first part of this presentation, treatment techniques for dealing with pastel paintings mounted on wooden stretchers will be discussed, with examples of pastel portraits by American folk artist Micah Williams (1782-1837). Williams’ original pastel portraits are typically executed on wove or laid paper support, glued onto a wooden stretcher, and accompanied by a loose lining(s) of local, period specific newspaper. The discussion will include surface cleaning using the tip of a kneaded eraser, mending tears with Klucel-G pre-coated mulberry paper, dealing with sprung-open tears or tears that are not reachable from underneath, and various in-painting techniques using ground pigment, grated soft pastel, and pastel pencil. Next, techniques for working with pastel paintings adhered on paperboards will be discussed, with examples of Micah Williams’ pastels that were badly modified by poor treatment in the past, as well as other pastels by Edgar Degas (1834-1917) in their original board mounted format. Due to the soft, friable nature of pastel media, removal of the backing or flattening the secondary paperboard is rarely feasible. Treatment is thus typically limited to problems independent of the secondary support.

In the second half of this talk, housing designs will be discussed which have been employed to safely enclose pastels on paper in three different formats: unmounted, mounted on paperboard, and mounted on wooden stretchers. These housing designs take into account the unique nature of the pastel media, the character of the support, and the concern for an optimal preservation environment. Using the Micah Williams pastels and the Degas painting as examples, we will look at options for glazing, mats, spacers, and the use of a Marvelseal® package, to provide a supportive, physically stable, and low stress environment inside the frame. These housings have been used as a preventive measure against many of the condition issues that arise from the handling, storage, and display of these vulnerable paintings.

Speakers
SC

Soyeon Choi

Senior Paper Conservator, Conservation Center for Art & Historic Artifacts
JM

Jessica Makin

Manager, Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:30pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:30pm

(Objects) Metal Health and Weld Being: Conservation Strategies for a Collection of Sculpture by John Chamberlain
Complex contemporary sculptures composed of re-used materials present numerous practical challenges for conservators in regard to description, documentation, conservation treatment, handling, and long-term condition tracking. In addition, these sculptures illuminate biases about reused materials that generate incorrect assumptions about structural stability or long-term preservation. Such sculptures also present philosophical dilemmas that are familiar in the context of conservation of contemporary art, such as unorthodox treatment methods that challenge traditional conservation ethics, but are most suitable for the stability of the sculpture and maintaining the artist’s intent.

This paper addresses the practical and philosophical issues faced by conservators while developing short- and long-term preservation strategies for a collection of 12 John Chamberlain sculptures in the Menil Collection. John Chamberlain (1927-2011) created abstract sculpture out of salvaged auto parts and reused sheet metal from industrial and commercial sources. In addition to taking advantage of his raw materials’ used condition, the artist worked in a collage-like manner, spontaneously spot welding or fastening pieces in place. The resulting sculptures exemplify the rough history of the raw materials and exuberance from the artist’s working methods that belie the complexity and fragility of the sculptures’ materials and structure.

Research into Chamberlain’s fabrication techniques and the industrial manufacturing processes of the materials used in his sculpture are described in the paper, as well as research and consultation with curators and specialists, and past conservation treatments. Two interviews with the artist over the course of 13 years informed the decisions made throughout the duration of the treatment. These interviews illustrate the value of interviewing artists directly, and how their memory and perception of the work may change over time.

To solve problems of documentation and condition reporting, a new standard methodology of documentation was developed specifically for this collection of sculptures. This standard documentation, which included a descriptive report template, specific photographic procedures, and protocols for annotating photographs using an iPad, proved invaluable in identifying the conservation needs and priorities of each sculpture, while allowing us to draw comparisons between sculptures and follow changes in the artist’s working methods over time. The implementation of a standard documentation methodology also facilitates tracking of condition issues in the future, and can be used as a model for documenting complex sculptures by other artists.

The paper also describes the practical aspects of conservation treatment of several Chamberlain sculptures, which involved collaboration between a team of conservators, art handlers, and a master metal craftsman, and documentation of the treatment with time-lapse photography.

Overall, this project addressed dilemmas in the conservation of artworks where treatment methods that are most suitable for the sculpture and are also integral to maintaining the artist’s intent challenge traditional conservation practices and ethics. Documenting and treating the collection as a whole provided an opportunity to develop a systematic approach to documentation and treatment to provide clear, consistent information regarding decision-making rationale.

Speakers
SM

Shelley M. Smith

Objects Conservator, The Menil Collection
avatar for Catherine Williams

Catherine Williams

Objects Conservator, Silver Lining Art Conservation, LLC


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:30pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:30pm

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Traditional Artist Materials in Early Paintings by Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol, an important figure in the pop art movement, was at the leading edge of the newest and most forward directed artistic expression of his time. Recent scientific examinations of several of Warhol’s paintings from the 1960s, including A Boy for Meg (1962), demonstrate that his materials were not necessarily as modern as the style and substance of his works. Although Warhol’s work throughout the ‘60s, ‘70s, and ‘80s pushed increasingly towards removing the artist’s hand from the work and frequently employed silk-screen techniques to achieve this, in the pivotal year of 1962 he obviously preferred brush painting using traditional media for his first large scale paintings on canvas. Binding medium analysis using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry has shown that the presence of egg proteins mixed with drying oils as the primary painting medium and not the casein that has been commonly associated with these important transitional paintings. Commercial egg tempera paints were readily available in tubes, and he would have been conversant with these matte, fast drying paints from his decade long career as a commercial illustrator. By the following year, he does move to screen printing with acrylic paints and inks. This talk will cover technical and scientific analyses of paintings from the National Gallery of Art, the Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, the Museum Ludwig, Cologne, and the Warhol Foundation, Pittsburgh, and will discuss the extent and implications of these findings in better understanding Warhol’s early methods and materials.

Speakers
JK

Jay Krueger

Head of Painting Conservation, National Gallery of Art
Jay Krueger was appointed senior conservator of modern paintings at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC in 1992, and has served as head of painting conservation since 2013. He is a Fellow of the American Institute for Conservation and has served on governing boards and advisory panels for numerous arts and conservation organizations and government arts agencies, including Heritage Preservation, the AIC (1991-92, 1994-1999), the Morris... Read More →
CA

Christopher A. Maines

Conservation Scientist, National Gallery of Art


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:30pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:30pm

(Textiles) Dancing on a Wire: Articulation Solutions for Mannequins in the Circle of Dance Exhibition at NMAI-NY
This presentation will discuss the creation and fabrication of ten articulated custom mannequins for garments and associated objects in the “Circle of Dance” exhibition at the National Museum of the American Indian - New York. The exhibition, which opened in September 2012, showcases dances of ten tribes from different geographical locations in the Western Hemisphere. Each of the mannequins is articulated in a gesture specific to an important dance from each tribe, so creating the illusion of specific movement as well as providing distinctive facial features and hand gestures was imperative. A variety of arm and leg connection techniques were employed which utilized mechanical and magnetized attachments. The faces, hands and feet were created from Fosshape, a felt-like material that hardens somewhat when steamed. Topics discussed will be: Choosing poses for maximum illusion of motion; examples of arm, leg and knee connection techniques; and extension of the articulation to the expression of the faces and hands through the use of Fosshape.

Speakers
avatar for Shelly Uhlir

Shelly Uhlir

Exhibits Specialist, Mountmaker, National Museum of the American Indian
Shelly Uhlir works in the conservation department at the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC where she has been staff mount and mannequin maker since 2001. She has collaborated with conservators for over 30 years and has been a TSG and OSG member since 2007. In 2010, she organized the 2nd Biennial International Mountmaking Forum at the Smithsonian Institution. She has authored or co-authored several JAIC... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 4:30pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:00pm

(Book and Paper) The Materials, Techniques, and Conservation Challenges of Richard Serra's Oil Stick Prints
The Gemini G.E.L. (Graphic Editions Limited) Archives at The National Gallery of Art, established in 1981, holds an example from each of Gemini’s published editions. The Archives includes rare proofs, documentation notes, working materials, and photographs published by the Los Angeles, California workshop. Of the more than 1700 works in the Archives, twenty-one are screenprints made with oil stick by Richard Serra (b.1939) between 1985 and 1991.

Richard Serra’s large-scale prints, with their densely layered, rich textural surfaces expand the boundaries of traditional screenprinting techniques. Each of the images begin with a traditional screenprint in black ink. Subsequent layers incorporate oil stick, the generic name for a medium (often called Paintstik, the Shiva brand of Jack Richeson & Co.) composed of pigment, linseed oil and melted wax, and molded into large sticks.

The printers at Gemini, working with Serra, manipulate the medium by heating the oil sticks, adding additional linseed oil and casting the mixture into large bricks. Multiple layers of oil stick are pushed through a screen onto the original keyprint. The screenprints are created on a variety of papers--Japanese and western, machine and handmade.

Due to their large format and experimental technique, these works are often difficult to store, handle, and display. The prints exhibit a variety of condition problems, including non-drying, soft, tacky ‘inks’ and textured surfaces that attract lint and dust. The surfaces are vulnerable to abrasions and deformations, especially during handling. Some prints have white, hazy deposits that develop when free fatty acids migrate out of the oil paint and deposit on the upper layers of the image. The white efflorescence disfigures the prints’ velvety black surface.

This research includes a survey and visual examination of Serra’s oil stick screenprints and drawings from Gemini G.E.L., private collections, and museums. The condition of the works and storage methods were examined in an attempt to understand the relationship between the storage conditions and the formation of efflorescence. Scientific analysis, including gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), was performed on samples of oil stick to characterize the media and identify efflorescence. The information gained from this research will inform the preservation and conservation needs of these works, and to develop protocols for optimum storage and treatment.

Speakers
IN

Im Nay Chan

Paper Conservation Fellow, National Gallery of Art
Graduate of the conservation program at Buffalo State College. MA/CAS Art Conservation. Held positions at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Conservation Center of Art and Historic Artifacts, The Morgan Library and Museum, and the National Gallery of Art.


Thursday May 30, 2013 5:00pm - 5:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:00pm

(Objects) Three-Way Plug Three Ways: Conservation Treatments of Three Editions of Claes Oldenburg’s Cor-Ten Steel and Bronze Giant Three-Way Plug
Claes Oldenburg created his monumental sculpture Giant Three-Way Plug in 1970. He viewed the piece as a coming together of the mechanical and the organic, and he anticipated the evolution of its patina as a reflection of the “events of nature” around it. However, almost immediately after installation, efforts were being made to arrest these evidences of nature and maintain a current image free from further deterioration. The artist himself recognized the tension between a philosophical ideal and the reality of gradual deterioration when he stated his preference for either pristine polished bronze or completely oxidized brown or green, but nothing in between. The in-between state of streaked and pockmarked Cor-Ten, graffiti, corrosion-marred bronze, and muddy footprints all distract from the conceptual nature of the monumental banal. Three editions of one artwork—in different settings and with different treatment histories—have over the course of four decades been subjected to efforts to create a balance of acceptable deterioration with respect to the artist’s vision and preservation of an artwork as an investment or permanent member of a collection and community.

The sculptures, their locations, and the conservators who treated them are as follows: 1) Edition 1 of 3, at Oberlin College, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio, treated by Mark Erdmann of ICA-Art Conservation; 2) Edition 2 of 3 at the Saint Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, Missouri, treated by Russell-Marti Conservation Services, Inc.; and 3) Edition 3 of 3, originally created for the private collection of David Pincus and now at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, treated by Adam Jenkins of Milner+Carr Conservation.

Per the artist’s instructions, the sculptures, intended for outdoor display, were partially buried in the ground as part of their installation. Contact with the earth resulted in accelerated corrosion of the Cor-Ten steel; in addition, the welds between the bronze prongs and the Cor-Ten body of the plug were sites of severe corrosion on two versions of the sculpture. Above ground portions of Cor-Ten weathered differently due to water run-off, prevailing wind, overhanging limbs, snow and leaf accumulation, and public interaction with the artwork.

This presentation explores the deterioration of each of the three sculptures prior to conservation treatment and the conservators’ differing approaches to treatment of similar issues. Where applicable, earlier conservation treatments of each of the sculptures are briefly discussed as well.



Speakers
ME

Mark Erdmann

Objects Conservator, Intermuseum Conservation Association
Mark Erdmann earned the Post-Graduate and Professional Development diplomas in Conservation/Restoration of Fine Metalwork from West Dean College, in West Sussex England, and interned at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich England. He has been a conservator of objects at ICA Art Conservation since 2006, where he routinely encounters a broad range of objects including outdoor sculpture, terra cotta reliefs, site specific artworks, as well... Read More →
avatar for Adam Jenkins

Adam Jenkins

Conservator of Decorative Arts and Sculpture, Adam Jenkins Conservation Svcs., LLC
Adam Jenkins received his MS in Art Conservation from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation in 2002, with an objects specialization. In the five years following, he served as Project Conservator before completing a three-year Mellon Fellowship in Objects Conservation at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. While working in the objects conservation lab at the PMA, Adam developed his interest in monumental sculpture beginning... Read More →
MR

Marianne Russell Marti

Principal, Russell-Marti Conservation Services, Inc.
Marianne Russell Marti has been in private conservation practice since 1988, as president of Russell-Marti Conservation Services, Inc., located in Central Missouri. She holds an undergraduate degree in Art History from Washington University in St. Louis, and an MA and Certificate of Advanced Study in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College. Marianne worked for one year in the sculpture conservation department at the Victoria and Albert Museum... Read More →
RM

Robert Marti

Russell-Marti Conservation Services
Robert Marti has been co-owner of Russell-Marti Conservation Services since 1988, with his wife Marianne Russell Marti.  After studying architecture and engineering for several years, he received his BFA from Washington University in St. Louis in 1967.  He worked for one year at General Motors in Warren, Michigan as a clay modeler, building full-scale prototype automobiles, then did graduate work in sculpture at Indiana... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 5:00pm - 5:30pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:00pm

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Rediscovering Color; Treatment, Analysis and Digital Restoration of Vincent Van Gogh’s Undergrowth with Two Figures
One of the most revered paintings in the Cincinnati Art Museum, Vincent van Gogh’s Undergrowth with two figures/Sous bois, painted in the last month of his life in 1890, was requested for loan in 2011. Found to be structurally sound upon examination, the painting’s visual appearance was neverthe-less compromised as a result of a wax lining administered in 1975. Treatment was proposed to remove a significant amount of wax and an inappropriate varnish layer. Given the painting’s popularity with visitors, Chief Conservator Per Knutås proposed to treat the painting while on view. Pre-treatment research, later confirmed during treatment, indicated the composition once included pink flowers − now effectively faded; possibly the fugitive geranium lake favored by Van Gogh. This question prompted the Cincinnati Museum of Art to propose a collaborative investigation with the Conservation Science Department at the Indianapolis Museum of Art in order to digitally reconstruct the painting to a state more truthful to its original conception.

Speakers
JF

Jeff Fieberg

Associate Professor, Centre College
avatar for Per Knutås

Per Knutås

Chief Conservator, Cleveland Museum of Art
Per Knutås is the Eric and Jane Nord Chief Conservator at the Cleveland Museum of Art where he oversees a department of 15 conservators and conservation technicians. He graduated from The School of Conservation at the Royal Danish Academy of Art, in Copenhagen, Denmark with a focus on modern contemporary paintings. Knutås worked at the Moderna Museet and the Swedish National Heritage Board, both in Stockholm, Sweden, prior to moving to New York... Read More →
GD

Gregory D. Smith

Otto N. Frenzel III Senior Conservation Scientist, Indianapolis Museum of Art
Gregory Dale Smith received a B.S. degree from Centre College of Kentucky in anthropology/sociology and chemistry before pursuing graduate studies at Duke University as an NSF graduate fellow in time-domain vibrational spectroscopy and archaeological fieldwork. His postgraduate training included investigations of pigment degradation processes and palette studies of illuminated manuscripts at the British Library and the V & A Museum, development... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 5:00pm - 5:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:00pm

(Textiles) New and Current Materials and Approaches for Localized Cleaning in Textile Conservation
This paper will explore current and developing approaches used in the cleaning of textile and costume objects. These emerging techniques employ poultices and gels to deliver specialized cleaning solutions locally to a textile’s surface, enabling stains to be addressed individually. We will define these materials and discuss their working properties. The advantages and limitations of each will be evaluated, and potential applications will be suggested. We will also discuss how these application methods can be paired with carefully designed cleaning solutions that may include enzymes, chelators, or solvents, according to the nature of the stain. Recent case studies for xanthan gum, agarose gel, methylcellulose, and cellulose pulp will be presented, and we will indicate how each material is prepared and applied. Opportunities for future research will also be considered.

Speakers
JG

Joy Gardiner

Assistant Director of Conservation, Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library
ES

Elizabeth Shaeffer

Graduate Fellow, Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation


Thursday May 30, 2013 5:00pm - 5:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:00pm

(Discussion Session) Moving Responsibilities: The Care of Performance-Based Sculpture
The panel will explore issues related to collecting, exhibiting, and conserving performance-based artworks, using the work of the internationally acclaimed artist duo Jennifer Allora and Guillermo Calzadilla as a set of case studies. The Indianapolis Museum of Art was selected to present the work of the Puerto Rico-based artist collaborative Allora & Calzadilla at the U.S. Pavilion for the 2011 Venice Biennale. This panel will provide a rare opportunity for AIC’s members to hear presentations and discussions from the commissioning curator, the principal performer of the work Body in Flight (Delta), and a conservator who has worked on another work by the duo in MoMA’s collection, Stop, Repair, Prepare. Body in Flight (Delta) will be performed at the AIC Opening Reception.

Lisa Freiman, IMA senior curator and chair of the Department of Contemporary Art, will discuss her role and experiences commissioning the artwork, Body in Flight (Delta). She will also briefly discuss the conservation efforts underway to represent the work over the long term.

Sadie Wilhelmi, performance artist/dancer, will discuss her role in working with the choreographer to create the performance and then discuss the way in which the performance has been translated and documented to allow for other, less experienced performers to complete.

Speakers
avatar for Richard McCoy

Richard McCoy

Principal, Richard McCoy & Associates
I'm a conservation and historic preservation consultant in the state of Indiana, educator, writer, researcher, guy who loves his family.
avatar for Glenn Wharton

Glenn Wharton

Clinical Associate Professor, Museum Studies / New York University
Glenn Wharton is a Clinical Associate Professor in Museum Studies at New York University. From 2007-2013 he served as Media Conservator at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, where he established the time-based media conservation program for video, performance, and software-based collections. In 2006 he founded the non-profit organization Voices in Contemporary Art (VoCA). Glenn received his Ph.D. in Conservation from the Institute of... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 5:00pm - 6:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom G-I 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:30pm

Opening Reception
Join us at the stunning Indianapolis Museum of Art. Our reception will be held in both indoor and outdoor spaces, so that we can take advantage of everything the museum has to offer. Visit their diverse collections ranging from ancient Mesoamerican to contemporary art. You will also have access to the Ai Weiwei: According to What? special exhibition. Don’t forget to take time to explore the gardens and outdoor sculpture park. One free ticket included with every registration. Extra ticket for Spouses/SOs/Guests $25

Sponsors
avatar for Huntington T. Block Insurance Agency

Huntington T. Block Insurance Agency

The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC) and Huntington T. Block Insurance Agency, Inc. (HTB) have partnered to provide AIC’s members with customized insurance programs. HTB’s specialized fine art policy for conservators protects artwork while in your possession for restoration and conservation. Each unique program provides broad coverage at affordable rates and is serviced by HTB’s... Read More →


Thursday May 30, 2013 6:30pm - 10:00pm
Indianapolis Museum of Art 4000 Michigan Rd, Indianapolis, IN 46208
 
Friday, May 31
 

7:30am

AIC's Book and Paper Group
Members of AIC's book and paper Group are invited to come to the group's business meeting.

Friday May 31, 2013 7:30am - 8:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

7:30am

AIC's Electronic Media Group
Members of AIC's Electronic Media Group are invited to come to the group's business meeting.

Friday May 31, 2013 7:30am - 8:30am
JW Marriott Meeting Rooms 201-203 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

7:30am

AIC's Objects Specialty Group
Members of AIC's objects Specialty Group are invited to come to the group's business meeting.

Friday May 31, 2013 7:30am - 8:30am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

7:30am

AIC's Paintings Specialty Group
Members of AIC's paintings Specialty Group are invited to come to the group's business meeting.

Friday May 31, 2013 7:30am - 8:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

7:30am

AIC's Textiles Specialty Group
Members of AIC's textiles Specialty Group are invited to come to the group's business meeting.

Friday May 31, 2013 7:30am - 8:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:00am

(Architecture) Nondestructive Testing Monitoring of Wooden Native American Pyramidal Structures
This research addresses the need for a non-contact, non-destructive methodology for monitoring changes in configuration and material condition of wooden structures constructed in Grand Canyon National Park by the Navajo and Havasupai Native American Tribes. Beginning in the late 19th century, Navajo and Havasupai family groups lived in seasonal community camps along the south rim of the Grand Canyon. During the 1950s, the National Park Service relocated both tribes from the Grand Canyon National Park leaving behind many different types of abandoned Native American wooden structures in settlement camps throughout the Park landscape. As part of this research, two methods have been investigated and developed for monitoring the structural engagement and fixity and condition of these structures. First, a photographic survey method is described that provides a technique to detect changes in the engagement and fixity of the wooden structural forked pole primary members. Second, Infrared Thermography is evaluated as a potential method to detect core deterioration in the wood forked pole primary members. This research presents the results of the proposed methods using models and sample materials under controlled interior conditions as well as the results of field testing in July, 2012.

Speakers
MJ

Michael J. Shoriak

Architectural Conservator, Cypress Building Conservation


Friday May 31, 2013 8:00am - 8:15am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:15am

(Architecture) Evaluation of Consolidation Treatments for the San José Convento Column, San Antonio Missions National Historic Park, San Antonio, Texas
The retreatment of previously consolidated stone has become an increasingly common occurrence and an important area of research in the field of architectural conservation. The San José Convento Column within the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park in San Antonio, Texas is a prime example for consideration. Initially analyzed, tested and treated in 1993 by the Architectural Conservation Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania, the column today is now in need of additional treatment. Recent analysis has determined that while the 1993 treatment had been largely successful in stabilizing the active flaking and decohesion of the stone surface, microcracks originally present have advanced and original surface detachment has worsened, largely due to clay swelling deterioration. It is likely that this deterioration mechanism existed in 1993, but was less visible due to the extent of detachment and flaking. Over the past 19 years, further research has been performed on modified ethyl silicates that inhibit clay swelling while restoring the grain-to-grain cohesion of argillaceous stone. In order to determine the most appropriate consolidation treatment for the column, several consolidants including a modified ethyl silicate were tested to determine the most appropriate method for in situ application.

Research undertaken for this study has focused upon the continuing deterioration of the column due to swelling of clays inherent within the stone. Local argillaceous limestone samples similar to the column were taken from the perimeter wall of the mission and previously studied during the initial 1993 treatment tests. These samples have been used for the purposes of this research. These samples, consisting of 2-inch square cubes and 2-inch x 2-inch x 0.2-inch thick coupons were treated with four different consolidants including a pre-treatment with an anti-swelling agent. Untreated and treated samples were then subjected to physico-mechanical testing to evaluate the effect of these treatments on stone strength, water absorption, permeability, and wet-dry cycling. Bulk samples taken from the column were analyzed through XRD to identify the swelling clay mineral composition of the stone. New methods of assessing the consolidation effects involving resistance drill testing were used to measure depth of penetration and efficacy of application on a large boulder recovered from the site. Durability of the stone was determined by wet/dry cycling coupled with SEM-EDS analysis to visualize the interaction of the consolidants with clay particles within the stone. The information and data obtained from this study will inform the future retreatment of the column needed to resolve the microcracking visible today. The conclusions drawn from this work will also contribute to the broader issues of retreatment and life cycle of treatments on previously consolidated stone.

Speakers
avatar for Kalen D. McNabb

Kalen D. McNabb

Student, University of Pennsylvania
Kalen McNabb, Architectural Conservator, received his Master of | Science in Historic Preservation with a concentration on materials | conservation from the University of Pennsylvania. With undergraduate | degrees in Historic Preservation and Geology from the College | of Charleston, Kalen’s experience includes extensive laboratory | materials analysis, archaeology, and stone conservation. His masters | thesis explored the use of an... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 8:15am - 8:30am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:30am

(Architecture) Learning from the Bastrop Wildfire: Effects of Wildfire on Historic Material
On September 4th, 2011, the most destructive wildfire in Texas history ignited in Bastrop County and continued to burn for more than a month afterwards. By the end, 720 acres were burned and 1,723 structures destroyed. One of the casualties of the fire was Bastrop State Park—a park founded in 1933, and developed by companies of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal. CCC constructions in the park include day use buildings (e.g. refectory, bath house), a set of maintenance buildings, and cabins as well as smaller structures including two overlooks and several culverts built into the park’s main road. All are built in the National Park Service Rustic style, and demonstrate a singular commitment to craftsmanship. In the Bastrop Complex fire—while wildland firefighters managed under great duress to coax the fire away from the cabins and day use buildings—both overlooks and all culverts were burned. The overlooks, load-bearing masonry structures, which lost their wooden roofs in the fire and suffered unknown structural damage, have since been re-roofed and the culverts are deteriorating with the post-fire effects of increased vegetation and soil erosion.

This paper will explore two aspects of cultural resources affected by the Bastrop fire: first, the potential long term effects of fire damage on sandstone of Bastrop park structures and second, suggestions for preventative measures to protect sandstone in the event of future fires. While stone is not readily combustible, it can be damaged by fire both superficially with color change and spalling, and structurally with weakened compressive strength. In a study of sandstone, Monika Hajpal, of the Laboratory of Building Physics at Budapest University of Technology and Economics, found that burned sandstone will gain porosity and lose density—a fundamental material change that can weaken the stone’s ability to support weight. This paper will give results of testing to determine the condition of structures currently, and how they may be weakened again in future events.

Preventative measures that park staff can use in preparing for the next wildfire include increased defensible space, and fire retardants. Increased and regular pruning of bushes and trees around the cabins has both positive and negative effects for the CCC buildings: defensible space is a proven measure in fire fighting and would save precious time and energy for fire fighters in the next wildfire event. Opposed to this is the original design intention of CCC architects, which subordinated structures to their environment, making them appear as part of natural features. Bastrop fire managers also did not use fire retardants on cultural resources, and this paper will present any deleterious effects of retardants on Bastrop materials and possible cleaning methods.

Speakers
MT

Miriam Tworek-Hofstetter

Graduate Student, University of Texas, Austin


Friday May 31, 2013 8:30am - 8:45am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:30am

(Electronic Media) The Legible City – One Artwork, Multiple Embodiments
The Legible City (1989-1991) is one of the major works of the Australian media artist Jeffrey Shaw and a milestone of 1990s interactive, computer-based new media art. In this installation, the spectator rides a stationary bicycle in a dark room, experiencing a virtual journey through projected views of the cities of Manhattan, Amsterdam and Karlsruhe. The real physical exertion on the bicycle is converted into the virtual distance covered.

Since the beginning of his career, one of Jeffrey Shaw’s main preoccupations has been the overcoming of the traditional, institutionally laid-down distance between the artwork and the viewer. From the mid-1970s on, Shaw moved from sculptural to computer-based work, seeing the computer as a particularly efficient medium for his work since programmed software configurations could function as modules, which could be adapted to create new artworks.

Jeffrey Shaw’s The Legible City illuminates numerous problems specific to the emerging field of digital art preservation. On the one hand, the interactive installation is based on proprietary, i.e. work-specific and licensed software. On the other hand, it uses obsolete hardware and custom-made components. Both factors contribute to the high cost of maintaining this work. By tracing the complex evolution of this artwork since its first presentation in 1989, this paper aims to illuminate the various strategies employed by the ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe for the maintenance and preservation of this installation over the course of the past twenty years.

In his double capacity as artist and director of the ZKM | Institute for Visual Media from 1991 till 2003, Jeffrey Shaw carried out several changes to The Legible City. Since the creation of a prototype (1988) of the artwork – which could interactively be operated by a joystick – the interactive installation has undergone several technological modifications, partly owed to the artist’s desire to take advantage of enhanced software possibilities, and partly caused by the obsolescence of components. Since the artwork was acquired by the the ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe, the institution has adopted the strategy of “hardware preservation” for the conservation of the artwork.

The Legible City is one of the ten case studies of the EU-funded research project “digital art conservation” (January 2010 – December 2012; digitalartconservation.org) and part of the traveling exhibition “Digital Art Works. The Challenges of Conservation” (held at the ZKM | Center for Art and Media from 29 October 2011 – 12 February 2012). As part of the case study, an in-depth retrospective documentation of the different stages of alteration of the work was carried out for the first time, with the aim to formulate recommendations for the long-term preservation of this artwork with regard to its authenticity and integrity. In addition, in dialogue with the artist, a porting of the software was carried out. This paper will reflect the measures undertaken over the course of the installation’s twenty-year history as well as this most recent undertaking.

Speakers
avatar for Arnaud Obermann

Arnaud Obermann

Time-Based Media Conservator, ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart


Friday May 31, 2013 8:30am - 9:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:30am

(Objects) Innovations During Renovations: Evolving Technologies and New Materials for an Encyclopedic University Museum
Founded in 1828 as the country’s first college art collection, the Yale University Art Gallery recently completed a phased, fourteen-year renovation and expansion to reverse over 280 years of accumulated, deferred maintenance. Guided by Art Gallery Director Jock Reynolds, New York’s Ennead Architects elegantly reunited three distinctly different buildings - the 1866 Ruskinian Gothic Street Hall originally built as the Yale Art School, the 1928 Italianate Gothic Old Yale Art Gallery, and the 1953 Louis Kahn building - as part of Yale University’s Master Plan for the Arts Area serving Yale, New Haven, and visitors from around the world. At a cost of $135 million, the project increased exhibition space by 73% allowing over 4,000 works of art to be displayed, and created new study galleries and classrooms to fulfill the teaching museum’s mission ‘to encourage appreciation and understanding of art and its role in society through direct engagement with original works of art’ (http://artgallery.yale.edu).

During the latest phase of renovations, the Conservation Department was tasked with treating over a thousand objects from eleven curatorial departments in less than three years. Support from interdepartmental museum staff allowed research and development of new materials and techniques for major installations and conservation projects. Treatments ranged from high precision, dry removal of tons of reinforced concrete to passive preservation of experimental materials used by living artists. This presentation spotlights ancient to contemporary conservation projects: a Roman mithraeum and horse armor, a Byzantine floor mosaic, an 18th century period room, Indo-Pacific textiles, an Indian teak archway, a John La Farge stained glass window, Marcel Duchamp’s Rotary Glass, and Matthew Barney’s petroleum jelly sculpture. Collaborations with engineers, fabricators, art handlers, exhibition designers, and curators made innovative use of evolving technologies. New applications of 3D scanning, CNC (computer numeric controlled) machines, and composite materials redefined reversibility and restoration and offered new options for collection display and collection sharing.

Speakers
avatar for Carol Snow

Carol Snow

Deputy Chief Conservator and the Alan J. Dworsky Senior Conservator of Objects, Yale University Art Gallery
Carol Snow is a graduate of Skidmore College and the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation. She worked at the Walters Art Museum, on archaeological projects around the Mediterranean, including a Fulbright Scholarship to work in Turkey, and then as a private conservator primarily in the Boston area for nearly twenty years. Carol joined the staff of the Yale University Art Gallery Conservation Department in 2008 as the first... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 8:30am - 9:00am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:30am

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Color and Spectral Archiving Using a Dual-RGB Imaging System
Digital technologies present conservators with numerous new tools on many fronts including core activities like documentation. Often, though, the cost and complexity of the new technology is a barrier to its full implementation by the field. This paper will present the development and refinement of a multispectral imaging system (Dual-RGB) that uses off-the-shelf hardware and simple custom software, thereby reducing cost and complexity, to demonstrably improve the color accuracy for conservation documentation through a spectral estimation technique.

This system consists of a standard digital camera of reasonably high spatial resolution, two custom filters and standard studio lights for capture of the images. The camera has the IR filter removed to extend sensitivity. Processing of the images is done with a GUI based program generated in Matlab and executable on any OS.

Fundamentally the system increases the number of channels captured from the standard 3 rgb channels to 6 by placing the two filters in the optical path and capturing images with each filter, hence the name Dual-RGB. First a white board is imaged with the filters so that the object images can be flat fielded to remove lighting artifacts and further improve the spectral estimation. A target such as a ColorChecker Classic with known spectral measurements is then imaged by the system to calculate a transformation matrix. This matrix will then be used to derive the spectral estimation of the object being imaged, which is also imaged with the two filters. Finally the object is captured with the two filters after which the image processing steps are done. The calibration images of white board and known target can be used for processing multiple objects provided the camera and lighting set up does not change.

Four computational steps are required for the Dual-RGB approach: flat fielding, image registration, colorimetric processing, and spectral processing. Flat fielding includes spatial low-pass filtering, effectively removing noise artifacts from the sensor and smoothing any texture or dirt of the diffuse white board. The image registration is calculated at the sub-pixel level. The archived image is a nine-channel ProPhotoRGB Tiff file. The first three channels are ProPhotoRGB encoded data. Channels 4-6 are image data from filter 1 and channels 7-9 are image data from filter 2. Channel 4-9 data have been flat fielded, registered, rescaled and encoded nonlinearly using the sRGB standard, and quantized to 16 bits.

The colorimetric and spectral processing achieves high color accuracy, reasonable spectral accuracy, and minimal noise propagation . The average DeltaE2000 for a color chart is less than 1 versus a range of 1.3 to 5.8 using the standard capture for a range of medium format digital camera backs. Perhaps more importantly the maximum error of the Dual-RGB system is 8.3 versus a range of 15 to 32 with the standard capture.

i R. S. Berns and S. Smith, “Analysis of color management default camera profiles for museum imaging applications,” IS&T Archiving 2012, 111-115 (2012).

Speakers
RS

Roy S. Berns

Richard S. Hunter Professor in Color Science, Appearance, and Technology and Director of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology
Prior to earning his Ph.D. from the University of Arizona in 2006, R.G. Erdmann started a science and engineering software company and worked extensively on multiscale materials modeling at Sandia National Laboratories in both Albuquerque, NM and Livermore, CA. He subsequently joined the faculty at the University of Arizona as a joint hire between the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Program in Applied Mathematics. His... Read More →
JC

Jim Coddington

Chief Conservator, Museum of Modern Art
Jim Coddington is the Agnes Gund Chief Conservator at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. He has a B.A. from Reed College and an M.S. from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum Conservation Program.


Friday May 31, 2013 8:30am - 9:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:30am

(Wooden Artifacts) 21st Century Art, Design, & Conservation: Protected Materials and Fine Arts Conservation
Recent press reports seem to indicate a sharp uptick in the illegal trade of materials derived from endangered species, including ivory, tortoiseshell, tropical woods and exotic feathers. The drought in the American southwest has exposed Native American artifacts to predations of looters. And, in perhaps the most famous case of all, Robert Rauschenberg’s “Canyon,” which incorporates a stuffed bald eagle (a specimen acquired before it was illegal), is caught in a legal limbo. The IRS insists that the item is worth $65 million – and wants proportionate tax and penalty – while auction house Christie’s values the item at $0, citing the inclusion of the now illicit eagle.

The implications of now-protected materials incorporated into fine arts objects are far-ranging. They include legal, financial and ethical issues.

This presentation will give a legal and materials overview of these complex situations and how they may affect fine arts conservators in both institutional settings and private practice. The first half of the presentation will outline the various laws and international conventions that apply to protected materials, and will elucidate the multifaceted legal and ethical obligations of conservators when working with them. The second half of the presentation will examine materials that were used for centuries in the creation of furniture objects, but are now protected. We will provide pointers for identifying these materials, historical context of their use and options available to conservators when the integrity of the object intersects with the realities of procuring replacement materials.

Speakers
avatar for Yuri Yanchyshyn

Yuri Yanchyshyn

Principal and Senior Conservator, Period Furniture Conservation LLC
Yuri Yanchyshyn is the Principal and Senior Conservator of Period Furniture Conservation, a New York City firm dedicated to providing excellence in the field of furniture and objects conservation. Prior to founding Period Furniture Conservation, Yuri worked as a consulting conservator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.  Yuri is a graduate of the University of Michigan and California Institute of the Arts with fine arts degrees in painting and... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 8:30am - 9:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:30am

(Discussion Session) Then vs. Now: Fundraising for Conservation Isn’t What It Used To Be
As little as ten years ago, funding requests for conservation projects usually consisted of describing the object, providing treatment details, and stressing the significance of the artifact being conserved. Benefits were often demonstrated through the object’s potential use to bolster exhibition content or educational programs.

How times have changed. Today, foundations are reevaluating their giving and are looking for considerable impact for their “investment.” Government agencies, if not zeroed out, need to advance strategic plans or are forced to award grants that fulfill regional economic priorities. Individuals are re-assessing their giving due to the market’s fluctuations. These changes in the philanthropic world mean fundraising for conservation is no longer just about the importance of an object’s long-term preservation. Now, economic value, community revitalization, sustainability, defined outcomes or demonstrable impact, and audience engagement are among the funder priorities that must be addressed in proposals or asks.

This session will re-visit what was, but its main focus will be on the current funding climate. Topics, such as community engagement, audience development, crowdsourcing, demonstrating impact, global initiatives and philanthrocapitalism, and soliciting different donor pools, will be addressed through formal presentation and case studies.

Speakers
SM

Susan Mathisen

President, SAM Fundraising Solutions Corp.
Susan Mathisen, President, SAM Fundraising Solutions, MA, Fashion Institute of Technology, Museum Studies/Textile Conservation, Certificate, Fundraising Management, New York University. For nearly twenty-five years, Susan Mathisen worked as an art conservator in both the United States and Europe and as a fundraiser for museums, universities and other historical agencies. Susan gained her knowledge of conservation and museum practice through... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 8:30am - 10:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 101-102 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:30am

(Book and Paper) Archives Conservation (Discussion Session): Is It Real? The Value and Ethics of Using Surrogates
The Archives Conservation Discussion Group (ACDG) will hold a discussion delving into the issues, uses, and needs of surrogacy in collections. The goal is to engage the panelists and audience in a true discussion.

Discussion Topics

• The Pros /Cons of Surrogate Use in Exhibitions
• Value of Original
• How do Surrogates Affect the User Experience?
• Do Surrogates Mitigate the Damage of the Original?
• Use of Surrogates in Personal Collections
• Conserving and Restoring Surrogates, Where Does it End?
• Creating Processes for Surrogates
• Challenges of Digital Surrogates

The demands on physical collections are growing as interest in unique collections increases. These demands are a concern to the conservation and preservation community. Surrogates are often suggested in order to mitigate damage and exposure of the physical objects. This solution is a controversial topic. Some have embraced this practice while others refuse to make the switch. Which side of the fence are you on? Please attend and voice your opinions and questions in this open discussion.

Moderators
TG

Tonia Grafakos

Chief Conservator, Northwestern University Library
Tonia Grafakos, a Professional Associate member of the AIC, is the Chief Conservator at Northwestern University Library, where she has worked since 2008. She earned a Master of Science in Information Studies with an Advanced Certificate in Conservation from the University of Texas at Austin (2008) after having completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and History at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Tonia was the Harper Inglis... Read More →
CS

Cher Schneider

Juanita J. and Robert E. Simpson Senior Conservator, University of Illinois Library
Have I mentioned...I hate moving. | | cherschneider.com | | I have puggles! What's a Puggle? Beagle+Pug=Adorable | Check out their websites | http://www.dogster.com/dogs/15557 | http://www.dogster.com/dogs/200529

Friday May 31, 2013 8:30am - 10:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:45am

(Architecture) Protecting UT Landmarks: an Evaluation of Graffiti Control
Graffiti has been a growing concern in public spaces. College campuses often serve as unfortunate recipients of this form of vandalism. With growing concern for the protection of its art collection, the University of Texas Landmarks public art program is developing a comprehensive plan to protect its artworks. The Landmarks program was launched in 2008 to cultivate a collection of public art for the University of Texas at Austin. Its priorities are to beautify the main campus while developing a sense of community and civic engagement. One of the first initiatives of the program brought twenty-eight modern sculptures from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City to the university. As its own collection grows, UT Landmarks wants to review methods for controlling graffiti. In collaboration with the UT Architectural Conservation Laboratory; this project will evaluate techniques for anti-graffiti treatments on a Sol Lewitt outdoor sculpture.

Through the Landmarks program, UT acquired, Sol Lewitt’s “Circle with Towers” from the Madison Square Park Conservancy in New York in 2011. “Circle with Towers” will be erected at the entrance of the new Dell Computer Science Hall and the Bill and Melinda Gates Science Complex designed by Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects. As part of a campus wide initiative to transform the East Mall into a major axis, the Science Complex and Lewitt sculpture will be located in the center of the campus. Designed by Peter Walker Partners Landscape Architects, the campus transformation will feature numerous art projects. Each public artwork will be viewed by thousands of people on a daily basis and will subject the collection to both applause and unforeseen hazards.

Lewitt’s sculpture forms a twenty-five foot diameter ring of geometric forms. The structure is composed of Westbrook Concrete Block Company’s Decro-Face Concrete Masonry Unit and is porous. All of the blocks have a water repellant admixture that is water-borne and clear. Both sacrificial and non-sacrificial anti-graffiti treatments will be tested in this evaluation. Sacrificial treatments are used for their minimal effects on the appearance of the substrate and are removed along with the graffiti once an episode occurs. Non-sacrificial treatments last for several graffiti episodes and are cleaned with chemical graffiti removers after an episode.

The process of treatment evaluation will include appearance and performance evaluation. After application of the anti-graffiti treatment an initial appearance evaluation will be completed to note immediate alterations in color and gloss. After the curing period is complete, a second appearance evaluation will be carried out. After successful appearance evaluation, the treated substrate will undergo performance evaluation. For the selected treatments, multiple types of graffiti will be applied to the surface. The graffiti will then be subsequently removed with the graffiti removal materials and methods recommended by the manufacturer. Based on the results of this evaluation, the “Circle with Towers” sculpture will be treated with an anti-graffiti coating. The results will serve as a model for future applications on porous substrates or comparable materials at the University of Texas at Austin.

Speakers
SH

Sarah Hunter

Historic Preservation-Student, University of Texas at Austin


Friday May 31, 2013 8:45am - 9:00am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:45am

(Textiles) Ferrous Attraction: The Science Behind the Magic
How to fasten or secure an artifact has long been a focus of art conservators in all specialties. We have stitched, glued and adhered items for decades. And with each method, the attempt was always to keep the conservation as reversible as possible. The somewhat recent development of strong, permanent, rare earth magnets has enabled them to be used as a reversible fastener. Neodymium rare earth magnets are far stronger than earlier permanent magnets and have only truly entered the market since 1990. They have great potential as a new tool for conservators. Could there really be a truly reversible tool that would not harm or create holes that we could use? Before these new magnets can be part of our future, a fuller understanding of how they work is needed. Moreover, a system needs to be developed to determine precisely which attributes a magnet should have for a specific project. What makes a magnet “permanent”, when were they developed, and how magnets differ from one another (i.e. the various types and their unique materials and properties) will be demonstrated.

The use of magnets in the past has caused damage, slowing their use among some. However, with a full understanding of how a system is created and can be adapted, damage can be prevented. A “jig” with various combinations of magnets and metal components will be used by participants to demonstrate the actual system and its parts, different methods of implementation, and the strength of commonly available magnets. This ‘hands on” experience can serve to stimulate conservators to better adapt a system to any specific artifact.

The material will be presented as a hands-on instructional format. Handouts will be provided.

Limited spaces available, ticket required; free to all TSG members. Tickets will become available once ticketed event registration begins.

Speakers
avatar for Gwen Spicer

Gwen Spicer

Conservator, Spicer Art Conservation, LLC
Gwen Spicer is a textile, upholstery and objects conservator in private practice. She earned her MA in Art Conservation from Buffalo State College, and has since taught and lectured around the world. In her twenty years in private practice, she assists many individuals and organizations of all sizes with storage, collection care, and exhibitions, and has become known for her innovative conservation treatments. Her current research and... Read More →

Sponsors
avatar for SmallCorp

SmallCorp

SMALLCORP manufactures products for the display, conservation and storage of works of art, textiles and objects. Our frames and display cases figure prominently in museum and corporate collections. SmallCorp customers include picture framers, galleries, art conservators and related institutions and professionals.


Friday May 31, 2013 8:45am - 10:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

(Architecture) Deformation and Disintegration of North American Marbles as a Result of Thermal Stress
Stone, especially marble, has been a building material since the dawn of civilization. As technologies and tastes have changed over time, so has its use. During the middle of the twentieth century thin panels of marble, ranging from 20-50mm, started to appear as exterior façade cladding on structures around the world. One of the inherent risks involved with this construction method is the potential for thermal deformation.

Marble, geologically speaking, is composed of calcite, dolomite, or a combination of the two. While both are similar in composition, they often perform very differently in response to external stimuli such as thermal cycling. In fact, deformation and disintegration instigated by thermal expansion and contraction differ greatly between specific marble types. The extent of which is completely dependent on the constituent mineralogy and physical characteristics such as grain size, boundary type, and orientation.

In 2000 the EU commissioned a collection of scientists, architects, and engineers working under the acronym TEAM (Testing and Assessment of Marble and Limestone) to create a report detailing the mechanisms behind thermal deformation potential as well as to develop standards for differentiating between marble that is susceptible to bowing and marble that is not. For obvious reasons the report largely focused on marbles originating from Europe. Little extensive scientific analysis of the effects of repeated thermal cycles on North American marbles, more specifically Tuckahoe, Colorado, Vermont, Alabama, and Georgia marbles, has been published.

Over the course of several months, disk samples from each marble type, approximately 40 mm in diameter and of varying thicknesses, will be subjected to repetitive heating and cooling cycles via a QUV accelerated weathering apparatus in both wet and dry conditions. Both before and after the samples are subjected to thermal cycling they will be measured in three directional planes (X,Y, and Z), tested for biaxial flexure strength and examined through petrographic analysis.

Considering these marble types vary greatly in both physical characteristics as well as mineralogical composition, the potential for thermal deformation and disintegration between them could likely be just as dissimilar.

Speakers
CT

Charles Thompson

Student, Columbia University


Friday May 31, 2013 9:00am - 9:15am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

(Electronic Media) Preservation and Restoration of Photographic and Audiovisual Materials after Large-Scale Disasters
The presentation will introduce into the problems after the collapse of the Historical Archive building in Cologne in 2009, where about 90% of the holdings were either lying beneath the mountain of rubble or among the debris in the underground railway shaft outside the building. Withmore than 500.000 photographic and 5000 audiovisual objects among the salvaged holdings. And each item needs a thorough cleaning and adequate repackaging and at least in many cases, further restorative measures will need to be taken. It is estimated that all in all, more than 6000 man years will have to be put in for conservation alone. So processes for mass treatment in the restoration of these materials and an exchange of experiences in the realisation will be needed and set up in the speech. The general workflow distinguishes between a first phase of basic conservation and restoration measures which can be taken with all items, regardless of their state of identification. Later on, more sophisticated (and costly) restoration processes will be priorised with respect to collections, individual value of the object in question and availability of sponsorship.

The presentation will take a look at the perspectives for the work in a new organized studio for conservation and restoration of photographic and audiovisual materials at the branche Office in Wermsdorf (Germany).
Apart from normal processes of conservation and restoration, the possibilities of the reconciliation of negatives and damaged photographs will be presented and different ways of re-using these negatives will be shown. The presentation will point out the possibilities and problems of cooperations with other institutions to make use of available records - in case of live recordings - from other archives, too.

Speakers
FY

Fenna Yola Tykwer

Time-based Media Conservator and PhD Candidate, Stuttgart State Academy of Art and Design


Friday May 31, 2013 9:00am - 9:30am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

(Objects) Beyond the Visible: Macro and Micro Analytical Forensic Imaging for the Documentation and Investigation of Archaeological (Objects)
Digital analytical imaging utilizing the properties of visible (Vis), ultraviolet (UV), and infrared (IR) light has become a standard documentation and diagnostic tool used by conservators and art historians not only to create a record of an object’s appearance and condition, but also to uncover its method of manufacture, history, and previous conservation treatment. This non-invasive method has enabled the examination of a variety of objects of different geometry, complexity, and value providing useful information not discernible with the naked eye. Recent advancements in the medical and forensic imaging fields have led to the introduction in conservation of improved methods in the examination and documentation of objects of archaeological, historical, and artistic value.

This paper discusses the application of a forensic alternate light source (ALS) with tunable light capabilities for the analysis of objects under specific wavelengths of light and illumination conditions. Combining the tunability of the light source with longpass, shortpass, and bandwidth filters positioned in front of a modified DSLR camera in which the UV/IR blocking filter has been removed, an object is analyzed using reflectance and fluorescence imaging at the spectral range between 350 nm (ultraviolet-UV) and 1000 nm (near infrared-NIR). From the monochromatic images captured, false-color reconstructed trichromatic images including UV and IR false-color images can be obtained, enhancing specific features not easily discernible in the original black and white images, and assisting in the qualitative identification of certain materials.

The results obtained from this versatile approach show that augmenting analytical imaging with forensic technologies is an invaluable first step in the examination of objects, being an excellent tool for screening and preliminary characterization of materials. For example, reflectance in the UV and luminescence in the visible and NIR were performed on an ancient ceramic with a highly obscured surface, revealing long-lost decoration not visible in standard UV-induced visible fluorescence or NIR reflectance imaging. Issues of authenticity in a law enforcement setting were also resolved with the discovery and identification of traces of ancient paints based on their specific visible and infrared fluorescence emissions.

Speakers
DI

Dr. Ioanna Kakoulli

Associate Professor, UCLA Materials Science and Engineering Department & Chair, UCLA/Getty Program on the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials
Ioanna Kakoulli is Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and Chair of the UCLA-Getty Conservation Interdepartmental Degree Program (IDP) on the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials. She is the founder and director of the Archaeomaterials Group at UCLA and co-Director of the Molecular and Nano Archaeology Laboratory. She received her... Read More →
AN

Alexis North

Graduate Student, UCLA/Getty
Alexis North is currently a second-year student at the UCLA/Getty Program in the Conservation of Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials. She received her B.A. in Anthropology and Classical history from New York University, and is interested in all aspects of the conservation of archaeological sites and materials, but especially the conservation of, and ethical questions surrounding, burial sites, mummies and other human remains. She has worked... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 9:00am - 9:30am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Total Appearance Image Archiving and Rendering using Studio Lighting
Imaging artwork for documentation and reproduction has a long and rich history, resulting in images with both high resolution and quality for a specific viewing experience. When multiple experiences are desired, e.g., normal viewing and raking, separate images are captured.

Alternatively, computer graphics (CG) can be used to create a virtual experience where lighting and viewing are changed interactively, enabling multiple experiences from a single dataset, obtained by capturing multiple images using dozens of lighting directions, e.g., a dome or portable flash. The focus of such research is on the interactive experience as well as forensics where details might be obscured using conventional imaging.

Beginning in 2006 research was initiated to merge these two approaches, that is, to measure the physical properties of the artwork with high resolution and quality such that CG could be used to both interact with the object and render multiple experiences at high resolution and quality without re-shooting. A concomitant goal was for the image capture to be readily implemented in a museum imaging studio using existing equipment.

For paintings and drawings (assumed to be planar), the minimum physical properties for CG are color, surface macrostructure (depth or surface normal), and surface microstructure (gloss), all a function of xy position, that is, the artwork’s total appearance. If we further assume that the object’s gloss is consistent (e.g., varnished painting or matte drawing), a studio setup can be used to measure color and surface normal and the gloss defined by the user, either visually or from an artist material database.

Two digital cameras have been tested: a Canon Mark II with 85mm lens and a Sinar 86H rePro system with Sinaron 100mm lens, each affixed with a glass linear polarizer. Four Broncolor Pulso G 1600 J strobes with P70 reflectors, barn doors, and affixed triacetate film linear polarizers were used as light sources with each light positioned symmetrically 90° apart within an annulus and 45° from the object plane. Thus conventional 45° illumination from two strobes is augmented by two additional strobes, one above and one below. Calibration requires imaging a glossy black ball to define lighting geometries, setting cross polarization, imaging a diffuse white board, and imaging a color target. Automated software outputs sRGB encoded diffuse color and surface normal floating-point images (PFM). For artwork, 6 images are collected: each cross-polarized strobe (4) and the left and right strobe with parallel polarization (2).

Software was written, “Artviewer,” to render images interactively for specific lighting conditions, either a point source or museum lighting. Once a view is defined, full-resolution 16-bit Tiff files can be created. “Isee” was also written to view the floating-point images, similar to HDR Shop.

The system has been tested in the conservation studio at the Museum of Modern Art for paintings of Pollack, Van Gogh, and Magritte. One of the advantages of this system is that it can be readily implemented in a museum imaging studio, providing both conventional high-resolution images (via parallel polarization) and total-appearance image data.

Speakers
RS

Roy S. Berns

Richard S. Hunter Professor in Color Science, Appearance, and Technology and Director of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory, Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology
Prior to earning his Ph.D. from the University of Arizona in 2006, R.G. Erdmann started a science and engineering software company and worked extensively on multiscale materials modeling at Sandia National Laboratories in both Albuquerque, NM and Livermore, CA. He subsequently joined the faculty at the University of Arizona as a joint hire between the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Program in Applied Mathematics. His... Read More →
TC

Tongbo Chen

Tongbo Chen is a Laboratory Engineer in the Interactive Media Group and Apple Inc. He has B.S. (Harbin Institute of Technology), M.S. (Beijing University of Technology), and Ph.D. (Max-Planck-Institut Informatik and Saarland University) degrees in Computer Science. Before joining Apple, he was a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the USC ICT Graphics Laboratory and a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Munsell Color Science Laboratory.
JC

Jim Coddington

Chief Conservator, Museum of Modern Art
Jim Coddington is the Agnes Gund Chief Conservator at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. He has a B.A. from Reed College and an M.S. from the University of Delaware/Winterthur Museum Conservation Program.


Friday May 31, 2013 9:00am - 9:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:00am

(Wooden Artifacts) Contemporary Sculpture: To Contact the Artist or Not?
This presentation will explore the challenges involved in the treatment of two contemporary wood sculptures, End of Day, Nightscape IV, 1973, by Louise Nevelson and Mass (Colder Darker Matter), 1997, by Cornelia Parker. Both sculptures consist of found wood objects and non-traditional art materials, both treatments involved cleaning, but in one case the artist’s foundation was contacted and in another case the artist was not contacted.

Both sculptures contain found wood objects from different sources. Nevelson used wood from printing trays and other post-industrial debris, while Parker used charred wood from a building burnt down by a lightning strike. Both artists used contemporary materials, Nevelson painted these found objects with matte black spray paint, Parker installed her work on nylon or monofilament threads. These sculptures were created 24 years apart and the artist Cornelia Parker offered the museum crates of additional pieces of charred wood to replace losses. Parker showed an awareness of the inherent vice in the material she used in the sculpture and she understood that the sculpture would need to be loaned, installed, and de-installed. She gave specific instructions for these tasks and anticipated the potential for damages during the artifact’s museum life.

The treatment for both sculptures involved removing dust from the surface, because of the fragile surfaces the dust removal was performed by manipulating the surface as little as possible. The aesthetic value of the sculptures was improved after cleaning, distracting amounts of dust were removed and the black wood appeared darker. The Nevelson treatment also involved stabilization of the paint, minor repairs of wood elements, and in-painting losses.

Interviewing an artist is an important tool for a contemporary art conservator. It allows the conservator to better understand the intent of the artist’s work and it can provide insight into the materials and techniques involved in the creation of the work. But it is important to understand when an artist interview is necessary, and the difference between a consultation with the artist, asking one or two specific questions, and a full artist interview. The two cases studies will illustrate the appropriate use of this tool. For the treatment of the Nevelson sculpture the Louise Nevelson foundation was contacted, by comparison the artist Cornelia Parker was not contacted as part of the preparations for the treatment of her sculpture.

The paper will touch on legal issues involved around the decision about whether to contact an artist, as illustrated by the Visual Artist’s Rights Act (VARA). The act defines the deterioration and conservation of a work of art and these definitions can be interpreted to understand the choices a conservator is faced with when treating a work of art. The paper will consider if there is a point when the training of a conservator allows them to make decisions about the treatment of a work of art, especially if the artist is unwilling or unable to perform these treatments.

Speakers
RC

Rose Cull

Conservator
Rose has training from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation and practical experience at: The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, the Nasher Sculpture Center, Shelburne Museum, Winterthur Museum, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. She is familiar with the standards of care for the conservation of contemporary art and working with living artists.


Friday May 31, 2013 9:00am - 9:30am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:15am

(Architecture) In Defense of Natural Cement: Concrete Technology at Fort Totten, New York
The U.S. Civil War had shown that fortified masonry structures were effectively obsolete with the advent of rifled cannon fire. Therefore, during the 1870s, the U.S. Military sought improved materials and defensive systems. Concrete was one of these materials, and, combined with reinforced steel rods and earthen embankments; it formed the backbone of the Endicott-Taft Period of Coastal Defensive Works in the United States (1885-1914).
At Fort Totten in Queens, New York, a series of concrete defensive works began in 1870, to replace a masonry fortification begun in 1859, but abandoned in 1867. These included a vehicular munitions tunnel, numerous torpedo and munitions magazines, and finally a series of Endicott batteries. Natural cement was used initially in the 1870s, primarily because it was less expensive than Portland cement. However, reported problems of deterioration signaled the change to Portland cement, and then reinforced Portland cement concrete in the 1890s. Interestingly, the testing of concrete on site was facilitated by the construction of a cement works and the preparation of aggregate on site.
The objectives of this project will be to identify the different types of cast concrete used in the fortifications of Fort Totten, as well as to identify the cement binders, aggregate, and mix proportions. The qualitative differences in the types of concrete used in the fortifications will also be examined, in order to see if the complaints about the natural cement concrete were justified, and whether this was due to the cement itself or the mixture. Furthermore, the project will attempt to determine how much deterioration of the concrete and corrosion of the rebar have occurred since they were built, given their coastal location, and whether there any traces of Alkali Silica Reaction is present. Core samples (3 ½ inch diameter) will be taken from selected structures, and a variety of testing methods will be employed for this project, include X-Ray diffraction, compressive strength tests, and thin section petrography.
The project will also examine the on-site methods of concrete manufacture, focusing on the cement works and the aggregate crushing. These will be documented primarily using the records of the US Army Corps of Engineers at the National Archives. Finally, the project will try to determine whether the lessons learned about the use and manufacture of concrete at Fort Totten were implemented at other coastal fortifications.
This project will form the basis of a Masters Research Thesis at Columbia University, under Professor Norman R. Weiss, and is facilitated by the Director of Preservation at the New York City Parks Department. In addition, laboratory and sampling equipment will be supplied by John Walsh of Highbridge Materials Consulting.

Speakers
avatar for Richard M. Lowry

Richard M. Lowry

Heritage Officer, Bermuda Government
Heritage Officer for the Government of Bermuda Currently on educational sabbatical at Columbia University GSAPP MA Medieval Archaeology (University of York, BA(Hons, Ancient Mediterranean Studies (University of Bristol, Member of the Institute for Archaeologists


Friday May 31, 2013 9:15am - 9:30am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:30am

(Architecture) Impact of Mineralogy, Texture and Fabric of Sandstone Quarried in Canada on Deterioration of Central Park Structures
The gray to tan-colored sandstone used for the construction of the Bethesda Terrace and several bridges and arches inside Central Park, NY, displays varying weathering behavior when exposed to the same environmental conditions. This group of sandstone often referred to as New Brunswick or Wallace sandstone comes from various quarries in Canada. The aim of this graduate thesis is to understand how different modes of decay observed on various structures relate to sandstone’s mineralogy, texture and fabric; and also decide if weathering is dependent on sandstone’s source and utilization. This research will be completed by April 2013.

Using polarizing light microscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, I will be fully characterizing the sandstone by determining its physical and mineralogical composition. This will allow me to compare and contrast between deteriorated, undeteriorated and new samples; see differences between sandstone from different quarries; and understand how a particular characteristic influences sandstone’s specific weathering behavior.

I will also be performing hygric dilation measurements to calculate stresses produced during wetting and drying cycles as well as degree to which samples swell, to understand swelling stress in magnitude to the plane and perpendicular to the bedding, and to evaluate swelling stress in different solvents.

Speakers
avatar for Mayank I. Patel

Mayank I. Patel

Student, Columbia University


Friday May 31, 2013 9:30am - 9:45am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:30am

(Electronic Media) Technical Documentation of Source Code at the Museum of Modern Art
Deena Engel, Department of Computer Science at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University and Glenn Wharton, Time-based Media Conservator, Museum of Modern Art & Museum Studies, New York University

As part of its program to conserve software-based artworks, the Museum of Modern Art undertook a risk analysis of thirteen works that use a variety of software programs, programming languages, and libraries. Eleven artists and two programmers were interviewed as part of this project. They were asked about the software, the hardware dependencies, and their concerns for future presentation of the artworks.

Risks assessed in this study include the potential impact from changes and upgrades to hardware, operating systems, programming languages and/or software applications used to create the artwork that would render the software or any associated multi-media files obsolete, thus jeopardizing future exhibition.

It became evident from this analysis that acquisition and technical documentation of source code is key to preserving these works. MoMA partnered with the Computer Science Department at New York University’s Courant Institute of Mathematics to perform a pilot study to document the source code of four artworks. The project used standard software engineering methods to analyze the code and create textual documentation for future programmers who may need to recompile or re-write it for new operating environments. The documentation will also aid future researchers in better understanding the principles behind the work. Technical documentation of code is standard in the software and business industries, but it is new for museums. Due to artist concerns for public experience of their work, standard methods in the software industry must be adapted for museum collections.

In this presentation, the authors describe their collaboration to document the source code of these artworks. The focus is on documenting how aesthetic properties such as color, movement, and sound are determined in the source code.

Speakers
avatar for Deena Engel

Deena Engel

Clinical Professor, New York University
Deena Engel is a Clinical Professor as well as the Associate Director of Undergraduate Studies for the Computer Science Minors programs in the Department of Computer Science at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University. She teaches undergraduate computer science courses on web and database technologies, as well as courses for undergraduate and graduate students in the Digital Humanities and the Arts. She also... Read More →
avatar for Glenn Wharton

Glenn Wharton

Clinical Associate Professor, Museum Studies / New York University
Glenn Wharton is a Clinical Associate Professor in Museum Studies at New York University. From 2007-2013 he served as Media Conservator at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, where he established the time-based media conservation program for video, performance, and software-based collections. In 2006 he founded the non-profit organization Voices in Contemporary Art (VoCA). Glenn received his Ph.D. in Conservation from the Institute of... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 9:30am - 10:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:30am

(Objects) Bringing History to Life: Reproducing a Worthington Steam Pump from the USS Monitor
On December 31st, 1862, the USS Monitor sank off the coast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, taking to the ocean floor a complex mechanical steam system, which included two direct-acting steam pumps designed and built by the H.R. Worthington Company in Brooklyn, New York.

In 1973, the Monitor’s wreck site was discovered in 240 feet of seawater, and in 1975, the site fell under the jurisdiction of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which currently oversees, protects, and studies the wreck. Over the past three decades, NOAA, with the assistance of the US Navy, has recovered over 200 tons of material from the site, including the two Worthington pumps in 2001.

Since 1987, when it was designated as the repository of all Monitor artifacts, The Mariners’ Museum in Newport News, Virginia has been conducting conservation on recovered objects to stabilize and preserve them for eventual display and curation. As deconcretion and conservation treatment began on the Worthington pumps, much of the artifacts’ original surfaces were exposed, which not only enabled the advancement of the treatment process but also revealed machining, file, and casting marks left on the objects from the manufacturing process. Also, through the use of x-radiography, loss due to years of corrosion as well as structural weakness to some of the surviving components soon became apparent. As the conservation treatment of the pumps progressed, discussion on final display also began, which led to further dialogue on how to visually convey to the public the pumps’ movement. By conservation ethical standards and from structural loss and weakness, operation of either original pump is not possible, so the use of a 3-D model was suggested. However, it was felt that a computer-generated model could never fully represent the impact of a live-running steam pump. Therefore, in 2010, Mariners’ Museum conservators began a project to create an operational replica of the pumps using multiple molding methods, laser scanning, computer-aided drafting (CAD), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and several casting and machining techniques.

This paper will provide an overview of the methods and challenges of reproducing a variety of pump components using both modern and traditional casting methods aided by the interpretation of foundry marks that remained on original components. Furthermore, it will describe the outreach potential of a project of this scale and how it has been used to attract new audiences, gain donor support, and spread awareness about the need for conservation.

Speakers
WH

William Hoffman

Conservation Project Manager, The Mariners' Museum
Will Hoffman received his Master's degree in art conservation from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario in 2009 specializing in the conservation of objects. He received Bachelors’ degrees in Anthropology (concentrating in North American and Historic Archaeology) and Fine Arts (concentrating in sculpture) at The State University of New York College at Buffalo in 2005. Presently, he works at The Mariners’ Museum in Newport News... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 9:30am - 10:00am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:30am

(Paintings + Research and Technical Studies) Reuniting Poussin’s Bacchanals Painted for Cardinal Richelieu through Quantitative Canvas Weave Analysis
Art historical debate has percolated for more than half a century over the identity of the four Bacchanals (1635-6) commissioned from Nicolas Poussin by Cardinal Richelieu for his chateau in Poitou, France. Three of the four subjects have been identified as the Triumphs of Pan, Bacchus, and Silenus, respectively. The success of this commission led to demand for the production of copies close in date to the originals, some of which are represented in major collections. There has been general consensus that Triumph of Pan(National Gallery of London, NG6477) was an original part of that commission. However, the status of Triumph of Bacchus (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 31-94) as the original commissioned version has at various times been doubted, in spite of sharing a common provenance with Pan until 1850. An incomplete early provenance and apparent stylistic discrePancies, particularly in relation to Pan, have caused serious doubts about the inclusion of Silenus (National Gallery of London, NG42) among Richelieu’s original commission. It is today classified by the National Gallery as a painting “after Poussin”.

In preparation for the Nelson-Atkins’ catalog of its French painting collection we sought to employ recent innovations in computerized “thread counting” for automated analysis of canvas weave variations to resolve the status of the Nelson-Atkins Bacchus. This approach has proven particularly powerful in demonstrating commonalities and distinctions between canvases of nominally identical average thread counts with art historical implications, as among the paintings of Vincent van Gogh ("The Burlington Magazine", February 2012), court portraits by Velazquez ("The Burlington Magazine", September 2012), and paintings by Johannes Vermeer ("Metropolitan Museum Journal", 2012). utomated weave comparison held the potential to settle the questions surrounding Bacchus in the event that the artist had employed part of the same bolt of canvas for Pan. Existing National Gallery radiographs of Pan were digitized and made available for our comparison with Bacchus through this process, resulting in a very close match of their warp thread-spacing variations (imposed primarily by the loom and resembling a bar code when color-coded and mapped). When subsequently performed on radiographs provided for the National Gallery Triumph of Silenus its warp spacing variations were also matched to a very high degree with those of Pan, providing compelling evidence that all three paintings were executed on sections of the same bolt of canvas. This form of evidence, connecting the three works to a single canvas as it does, relates them more closely than other forms of analysis might, such as a demonstration of the shared use of a common set of pigments, and is unaffected by variations in condition of the paintings. This outcome should lead to a significant reassessment of Silenus and, more generally, of the criteria upon which scholarly opinion has been formed in attempting to resolve questions of authorship among roughly contemporary Old Master paintings. A comparison of painting materials and working methods employed for Bacchus and Pan is now proceeding, which will be underpinned by the certainty that they were contemporary products of the same studio.

*author for correspondence
Robert Erdmann1*, C. Richard Johnson2, Mary Schafer3, John Twilley 4
1 Assistant Professor, University of Arizona, Materials Science and Engineering and Program in Applied Mathematics
2 Geoffrey S. M. Hedrick Senior Professor of Engineering, Cornell University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
3 Associate Conservator of paintings, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
4 Andrew W. Mellon Science Advisor, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art


Speakers
RE

Robert Erdmann

Assistant Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Program in Applied Mathematics, The University of Arizona
Prior to earning his Ph.D. from the University of Arizona in 2006, R.G. Erdmann started a science and engineering software company and worked extensively on multiscale materials modeling at Sandia National Laboratories in both Albuquerque, NM and Livermore, CA.  He subsequently joined the faculty at the University of Arizona as a joint hire between the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Program in Applied... Read More →
CR

C. Richard Johnson

Geoffrey S. M. Hedrick Senior Professor of Engineering, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University
MS

Mary Schafer

Painting Conservator, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art
JT

John Twilley

Art Conservation Scientist
John Twilley's scientific work in conservation has focused on the use and improvement of microanalytic methods for the study of artists' materials and their alteration phenomena. Formerly scientist of the J Paul Getty Museum and head of the scientific lab at LACMA for thirteen years, since 1999 he has worked independently for a wide variety of institutions. In addition to conducting artwork-specific, individual projects he is currently the Mellon... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 9:30am - 10:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:30am

(Wooden Artifacts) Schooner Virginia: Addressing Inherent Issues in Ship Restoration
Historic ship preservation presents dilemmas for long-term management plans. Beyond practical concerns, money and other resources, a ship does not always remain in its original form. Ships can, and often, undergo major modifications throughout the course of a vessel’s lifespan. Those modifications are sometimes related solely to routine maintenance and repairs; but occasionally, vessel modification repurposes a ship for new tasks or modernizes an older vessel. Repurposed or renovated ships that transition from working vessels to museum objects challenge the accepted principles of ship preservation and/or restoration. To demonstrate, a mid-nineteenth century schooner, Virginia, will illuminate preservation and restoration concerns facing museum administration.

Constructed in Mobile Bay 1865, Virginia fished and sailed the Gulf of Mexico’s waters for nearly 125 years. During its expansive career, the 55 foot schooner underwent multiple alterations to update the ship’s form and propulsion; allowing it to continue functioning in a developing commercial fishing fleet. Originally a two-masted, sail powered vessel, the 1914 owner installed a diesel engine. This represents an early twentieth century trend for sailing vessels switching to auxiliary engines. In the late 1930s, owners removed both masts and an engine supplied the sole source of propulsion. After 1989, the final owner maintained the vessel until sold to the National Civil War Naval Museum. Since 2000, Virginia has remained stored at the Georgia-based museum awaiting final restoration decisions.

How then to proceed with restoration? Typically historic significance determines whether a ship warrants preservation, a lengthy and expensive process. Virginia serves to demonstrate the longevity of wooden shipbuilding and also several distinguishable trends in American maritime history. The question becomes how to justify saving one historic form of the vessel over another. Age, rarity, and rumored connections to Civil War smuggling, favor the eighteenth century centerboard schooner form. However, the early twentieth century auxiliary vessel included in the Historic American Merchant Marine Survey, of which only one other survey vessel remains, points to this era’s significance. Yet, the final phase of a diesel powered commercial fishing vessel deserves consideration because, according to a Coast Guard survey, Virginia operated as the oldest fishing vessel in America’s fleet until 1989. Discussion of Virginia’s potential restoration reveals fundamental questions regarding object significance and consideration of forms and elements to preserve which best represent an object with a complex history.

Speakers
avatar for Nicole Wittig

Nicole Wittig

Student, East Carolina University


Friday May 31, 2013 9:30am - 10:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:45am

(Architecture) Does Size Matter? Comparing the Alpha-P and the Hyperion for FTIR Paint Analysis
In art and architectural conservation since the 1970s, Infrared Spectroscopy is often used to analyze historic pigments and their media. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was introduced in the 1980s, followed quickly by the development of the Infrared Microscope. Because the configuration of instruments costs over $100,000 with testing samples priced at $100, it is often cost prohibitive for many conservators, consultants and scientists. Recently, a less expensive and smaller FTIR instrument was introduced. At $15, 000, the Brucker Alpha-P presents a much more approachable cost.

In my thesis I wish to compare the results of the pigment and media analysis made with the Alpha-P, located at the institute of Fine Arts to those made on the much larger and more expensive Hyperion FTIR microscope in the Metropolitan Museum’s objects Conservation Laboratory. In addition to investigating the accuracy of the Alpha-P’s results, I would also like to discern what the smallest sample size an operator may use before significantly altering the results. There is currently no published information available as to whether this machine performs to the same standards and levels as the larger FTIR microscopy with regard to pigment and media analysis. Because the Alpha-P generally analyses large samples, it may be better applied to architectural pigment testing because of the availability of a more invasive paint sampling than permitted in the world of art conservation. Should this test perform and produce comparable, if not better, results, then the conservation world may find pigment testing more cost effective and easier to execute. In addition to comparing and contrasting the performances of the aforementioned equipment, I would also like to begin to compile library of architectural pigments in media for the Infrared and Ramen Users Group (IRUG) as no such compilation has yet been made available.

Speakers
avatar for Brooke W. Young

Brooke W. Young

Student, Columbia University
Columbia University Historic Preservation and Conservation


Friday May 31, 2013 9:45am - 10:00am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:00am

Exhibit Hall Break
AIC’s 41st Annual Meeting features the largest U.S. gathering of suppliers in the conservation field. Mingle with exhibitors and discover new treatments and business solutions. For the current list of exhibitors, see inside back cover. Posters on a range of conservation topics also will be on view in the Exhibit Hall, with an author question-and-answer session.

Friday May 31, 2013 10:00am - 10:30am
JW Marriott Griffin Hall 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:00am

Meet the Editors
Stop by and chat with the AIC editors outside the Exhibit Hall: Michele Derrick (JAIC), Lisa Goldberg (AIC News), Rachael Arenstein (AIC’s e-Editor - wiki & blog), Nancie Ravenel (outgoing AIC Publications Committee chair), and Bonnie Naugle (AIC Communications Manager).

Friday May 31, 2013 10:00am - 10:30am
JW Marriott Griffin Hall 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Electronic Media) Pericles and Presto4U – Two European Funded Projects Progressing Research in the Conservation of Digital Art
This paper aims to provide an overview of two European funded projects which will begin in early 2013 and which include the conservation of digital arts within their purview. The four year project, Pericles, considers the preservation life cycle for digital arts and Presto4U, focuses on video preservation and includes art museums and collections as one of its communities of practice. Both of these projects ask why previous research has had such small take up within the museum sector, specifically among those dealing with the conservation of digital arts. These also aim to develop tools and methods which will help to support the conservation of these works of art in our care.

The author will describe the aims of these research projects, the importance of building partnerships and developing a common understanding and vocabulary with those working within digital humanities and the archive community and how participation in this research is impacting approaches to the conservation of digital arts. The paper aims to develop alliances and dialogue between these research projects and those working in this area within the US.

Speakers
PL

Pip Laurenson

Head of Collection Care Research, Tate
Pip Laurenson has over twenty years of experience working within a contemporary art museum and in her current role, she is responsible for the strategic direction, development and leadership of Collection Care Research, which serves all four of Tate’s galleries and its collection centre. Pip has secured awards for research from a range of funders including private foundations, the European Union and the UK’s Arts and Humanities... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Objects) Preserving an Aesthetic of Decay: Living Artists and the Conservation of Contemporary (Objects)
The artist/conservator collaborative process is an important and emerging area of conservation focus. The purpose of this paper is to examine the conservation of contemporary works in the context of the artist/conservator collaboration with the goal of preserving an artist’s legacy. First, an overview of common opportunities and challenges facing contemporary object conservators who work with living artists will be presented. For example, the artist can be used as a primary source when researching treatment options, providing insight into intention, aesthetic, and materials. Direct contact with the artist may alleviate guesswork inherent to the practice of conservation. However, artists returning to works created several decades earlier may incorporate current thought about aesthetics and construction in their advice. The conservator must strive to utilize the artist’s input without altering the original intent of the object. Next, specific materials issues will be discussed using the work of James Magee as a case study. Magee is a Texas-based artist known primarily for a decades-long project called The Hill – a site-specific architectural installation in the desert outside of El Paso providing a sensorial experience for the viewer. The Hill is composed of a wide array of materials, including local shale, steel, bone, lead shot, hibiscus and found objects. Thus, The Hill, as well as Magee’s smaller objects, provides a unique opportunity to examine the role of the conservator in preserving the material aspect of a body of work – one that aims to explore beauty through the process and product of decay – by an artist who recognizes that maintenance is a distinct aspect of his work. Another area common for contemporary conservators is preserving the immaterial aspect of works. In Magee’s case, the titles of objects, often pages in length, are integral to the viewers’ experience of the piece itself. The conservators’ role in documenting (e.g. recordings, textual description) and maintaining these essential “spoken word” elements of the work is discussed. The collaboration between the conservator and artist is also examined based on ethical issues that arise. The paper concludes with a special emphasis on documentation as a tool to bridge the caretaker roles of the conservator and the living artist.

Speakers
JC

John Campbell

Conservator, C C S Conservation Inc.
John Campbell is a sculpture conservator specializing in modern and contemporary art, with an emphasis on large-scale outdoor works. He recently returned to New York after having served four and a half years as head of the conservation department at the Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas, TX. Prior to the Nasher, Mr. Campbell spent three and half years at the Museum of Modern Art, first as an intern and then as a fellow, as well as a year with a... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Paintings) The Research and Conservation Treatment of Jar of Apricots/le bocal d’abricots, 1758 by Jean-Siméon Chardin
Sandra Webster-Cook, Conservator of paintings, Art Gallery of Ontario; Lloyd De Witt, Curator of European Art, Art Gallery of Ontario; Kate Helwig, Senior Conservation Scientist, Canadian Conservation Institute

This remarkable still-life by Chardin is one of the great masterpieces in the collection of the Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO). It is a rare oval by Chardin and is very significant as one of a pair presented by Chardin at the Salon of 1761. The companion painting, The Cut Melon is in a private collection. The research and conservation of the AGO painting was sponsored by the BNP Paribas Foundation.

The painting was generally in stable condition but suffered from at least two generations of harsh restoration treatment. There are drying cracks in many areas and extensive mechanical cracking of the paint layers which appears to be stabilized by an old glue lining. Restoration treatments of the damaged areas of the paint surface have altered the forms and colours of the original. The synthetic varnish (EVA co-polymer) had deteriorated and lost its transparency resulting in incomplete saturation of the dark colours especially.

Prior to treatment, non-invasive analysis of the painting was carried out by scientists from the Canadian Conservation Institute to document the artist’s materials and assist in the interpretation of early retouching in the consideration of their removal and separation from the original surface. Non-invasive Raman spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry provided information about the paint composition in many areas. Some samples were removed during the course of the treatment and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry to provide more detailed compositional information.

Following the initial phase of study, the painting was loaned to the Chardin exhibition in Ferrara and Madrid (2010-11). Examination of comparable works assisted in the understanding of Chardin’s materials and techniques and served as important reference material in the cleaning and reconstruction of damaged areas. The venues also permitted consultation with Chardin scholars.

The painting required a sensitive cleaning (removal of the synthetic varnish and removal of most of the old restoration retouchings). After the brush application of a stabilized natural resin dammar varnish, the abraded and damaged areas were reintegrated by retouching with B72 and dry pigments, in consultation with our Curator of European Art, Lloyd De Witt and in reference to similar works by the artist and accumulated research.

The lengthy and complex treatment has been very successful and has revealed unexpected colour. The painting has recovered a greater sense of depth, and more subtlety of colour and texture throughout. There is unity of tone, colour and form central to Chardin’s aesthetic. Chardin’s interest in the effects of light, transparency and reflection is clearly evident and the quiet beauty so characteristic of his work is recovered.

Speakers
KH

Kate Helwig

Kate Helwig has an honours B.Sc. in Chemistry from the University of Toronto and a Master’s degree in Physical Chemistry from Stanford University. She studied artifact conservation at Queen’s University and received a Master’s Degree in Art Conservation. Since 1992, she has been working at the Canadian Conservation Institute where she is currently a Senior Conservation Scientist. She specializes in the analysis of art and archeological... Read More →
SW

Sandra Webster-Cook

Conservator of Paintings, Art Gallery of Ontario
Sandra Webster-Cook began university studies in an applied science program with an interest in textiles and design, but transferred early on, graduating in Honors Science with a Chemistry specialization. She was subsequently employed as a Research Chemist by the University of Guelph, the Université de Lausanne, Switzerland and the Research Institute of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto. Following studies in Art History and Studio Art she... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Research and Technical Studies) Examination, Technical Study and Treatment of Funerary Stelae from the Roman-Egyptian Site of Terenouthis
This paper describes the examination, technical study and treatment of a group of limestone funerary stelae from the Graeco-Roman Egyptian city of Terenouthis. Excavated in 1935 by the University of Michigan, the necropolis of Terenouthis yielded hundreds of tombs, each adorned with a limestone grave marker, or stela. Each stela was carved with a figure of the deceased, a Greek inscription of their name, and Pharaonic deities and symbols. Approximately two hundred of these objects were brought to the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology following the University’s single excavation season at Terenouthis. Today, the stelae continue to serve as important sources of information to students and scholars and some are featured in the Museum’s new exhibit wing.

A recent condition survey of the stelae collection found that the artifacts have undergone significant deterioration since their arrival at the University over 75 years ago. Stone delamination, surface powdering, biological staining, and a peeling, darkened coating – originally applied to help preserve the stelae – were observed. A study was carried out in order to identify the agents of deterioration and develop a protocol for treatment and long-term preservation. The aim was to understand the factors involved in the stelae’s complex, interrelated deterioration phenomena. Initial examination and spot tests yielded important information, pointing to the actions of soluble salts, biofilms, and an aging nitrocellulose coating.

These observations were confirmed by chemical and instrumental analysis conducted in collaboration with scientists at the Detroit Institute of Arts and the mycology and electron microbeam analysis laboratories of the University of Michigan. Analytical techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specimen culturing and DNA analysis were used to confirm the presence of soluble salts, characterize the stone, and determine the exact nature of the biological growths seen on many stelae. XRF and XRD analysis were also used to characterize traces of polychromy, including the green earth mineral celadonite, a pigment not often observed in Egyptian art.

A contingency-based treatment protocol was designed to address identified condition issues, with the understanding that each stela is affected to varying degrees by the observed forms of deterioration. The protocol includes recommendations for stone consolidation and structural stabilization, poultice desalination, coating reduction, and biostain reduction. In an effort to use materials that are compatible with the limestone, consolidation was carried out using calcium hydroxide nanoparticles (CaLoSil®) in n-propanol. Environmental parameters have been developed based on the equilibrium relative humidities of salts that were characterized, and on environmental monitoring data from the stelae’s climate-controlled storage and display spaces.

This project, which developed a flexible plan to preserve a large collection of artifacts and incorporated materials and techniques used in non-objects specializations, represents a contemporary, collaborative conservation approach – one that makes the best use of limited resources and looks to professional allies for ideas and support.

Speakers
avatar for Cathy Selvius DeRoo

Cathy Selvius DeRoo

Research Scientist, Detroit Institute of Arts
Cathy Selvius DeRoo is the Conservation Scientist at the Detroit Institute of Arts. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and was the recipient of a National Institutes of Health Postdoctoral Fellowship in biophysics. In addition to conducting analyses of the wide range of artists’ materials represented in the encyclopedic collections of the DIA, she conducts cultural heritage materials research in collaboration with... Read More →
avatar for LeeAnn Barnes Gordon

LeeAnn Barnes Gordon

Assistant Conservator, Harvard Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
LeeAnn is currently an objects conservator at the Harvard Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, and is also a Consultant for ASOR’s Cultural Heritage Initiatives. She earned her graduate degree from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation, and has held fellowships at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Newport Mansions. LeeAnn is the outgoing Chair of AIC’s Archaeological Discussion Group, and is also a... Read More →
avatar for Caroline Roberts

Caroline Roberts

Conservator, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology
Caroline Roberts is an objects conservator and a graduate of the Winterthur / University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation. As a graduate fellow, Carrie held internships at the Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology, the UK preservation organization English Heritage, and the Worcester Art Museum. After graduating in 2011, Carrie pursued post-graduate fellowships at the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan, the J. Paul... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Textiles) Establishing Dye Analysis at the Conservation Science Lab of the Indianapolis Museum of Art
Knowledge of the chemical composition of the dyestuffs used on textiles can provide information on the history and origin of the textile as well as the technology employed to create it. This information may be valuable for conservation or curatorial purposes. While dyestuffs used on textiles can be of natural or of synthetic origin, the coloring matter involved in each case is generally one or more organic molecules. Confident identification of the dyestuffs on textiles often requires extraction of all of the colorants from the fiber samples, the resolution of the mixture into single chemical entities, and the subsequent individual identification based on chromatographic retention, light absorption characteristics, and molecular mass. In dye analysis, the separation of the colorants by liquid chromatography (LC) is combined with diode array detection (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS) for structural characterization. Since the Conservation Science Lab at the Indianapolis Museum of Art began its operation in 2010, we have begun to employ LC-DAD-MS for dye analysis. In this presentation, we will share with you some details about the format of our experimental set up, some of the challenges we have encountered in sample extraction, the characterization of dye molecules, with and without relying on reference standards, and the issue of dye identity assignment. The data presented will include the characterization of certain reference dyestuff samples, such as madder, dyer’s greenweed and Scotch broom, as well as the extracts of fibers from an Uzbek coat, in which we have identified such synthetic colorants as Fast Red AV and Acid Green 16, along with natural alkaloids berberine and palmatine that have been reported to be present in Berberis, Coptis or other plant species.

Speakers
VJ

Victor J. Chen

Indianapolis Museum of Art
KK

Kathleen Kiefer

Senior Conservator of Textiles, Indianapolis Museum of Art
GD

Gregory D. Smith

Otto N. Frenzel III Senior Conservation Scientist, Indianapolis Museum of Art
Gregory Dale Smith received a B.S. degree from Centre College of Kentucky in anthropology/sociology and chemistry before pursuing graduate studies at Duke University as an NSF graduate fellow in time-domain vibrational spectroscopy and archaeological fieldwork. His postgraduate training included investigations of pigment degradation processes and palette studies of illuminated manuscripts at the British Library and the V & A Museum, development... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Wooden Artifacts) The Gordian Table Circa 2011
In 2010 after nearly twenty years of contemplation the restoration of a fully 3-dimensional replica of the Gordian Table found in Tumulus MM at the Gordian site in Turkey began. This project from the start was without funding or grant sourcing and was a labor of love to replicate as closely as possible the very elegant and intricate yet surprisingly simple table. The lecture focuses on what it took to make full scale computer generated drawings of each piece and transfer that to wood harvested from New Zealand that was in itself 40,000 to 60,000 years old. The complexity of the original was re-created by using tomb photos of the pieces in situ during the 1950’s tomb opening. Many questions were answered; many more were opened up because of the technology and craftsmanship of the original object. While there are many three legged tables from this period in the Middle East (500 – 900 B.C.), nothing like this table and the several other objects clearly made by the same craftsman or school of craftsmen and only found in the one tomb, have truly been fully identified and attributed to a specific site and/or time. The original craftsman clearly had phenomenal skills and was very proficient with his craft well beyond what should have been the standard at that time in history. Replicating the process from beginning to end proved challenging and yet rewarding to discover not only the success but the little failures along the way that most surely were felt while building the original. Clearly the tools available during the time period as far as we are currently aware proved wholly inadequate for this table. Modern era tools proved to be almost as inadequate as well. Many of the tools necessary had to be fabricated to establish the same type of tool marks found on the original. Every attempt was made to truly make this table appear as a used piece of furniture without making it an attempted forgery of a piece. Furniture conservators have struggled for decades with making their work invisible but identifiable and that is true with this project. There is probably nothing truly square or perfect about this table but it imparts the charm we all have found with the aged objects we deal with on a daily basis including repairs made early on in the table’s history. Seasonal wood movement was allowed to explore its own path also adding that element to the finished table.

Finish for the table was derived from harvested resin from the 40,000 + year old Kauri wood. It was prepared in a manner consistent with technology available to the original craftsman and produced a surprisingly lustrous and reflective coating. No analysis has been done to date on the original coatings so the finish is at best a good guess.

The table project represents what many conservators and historians have talked about for years, building something with the skills and experience senior conservators have acquired as a result of spending considerable time with the objects entrusted to us. The lecture will highlight the process for one such project.


Speakers
RP

Rick Parker

Parker Conservation, Inc


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Discussion Session) Conservation Treatment Documentation Databases
As conservation moves into the digital age, conservators seek to transition their treatment documentation from the filing cabinet to the database. Database standards for treatment documentation have grown organically and independently among institutions, with solutions of widely varying complexity. This panel discussion seeks to establish trends among systems; to clarify those systems’ relative strengths and weaknesses; to reduce redundancies of effort among developing institutions; and to illuminate future directions in design and use.

This (Discussion Session) will incorporate a variety of database development perspectives: independent, open-source, and vendor-based. Independent databases developed in-house by institutions often rely upon consumer software or contracted programmers. Open-source solutions work toward cooperatively established, interoperable standards. Vendor-based solutions address documentation within existing, proprietary software. Public discussion of these efforts aims to address questions such as:

• What is the basic structure of these various systems?
• How do these systems manage both photographic and written documentation?
• How do databases address the needs of libraries, archives, and museums?
• How can databases facilitate workflow within an institution?
• How do these systems ensure data security?
• What IT support is required for these systems?
• What are the user costs for these systems?
• What data migration might be required in the future?

Speakers
JH

Jay Hoffman

Gallery Systems
LH

Linda Hohneke

Conservator, Folger Shakespeare Library
avatar for Sarah Norris

Sarah Norris

Conservator, Texas State Library and Archives Commission
Sarah Norris is the conservator at the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, where she designed that institution's book and paper conservation lab. Norris is a Professional Associate in the American Institute for Conservation, and serves as webmaster on the board of AIC's Electronic Media Group.


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 101-102 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Architecture) Shared Approaches for Conserving Modern Heritage
This panel discussion will present two case studies that demonstrate interdisciplinary conservation and preservation strategies for two mid-century modern masterpieces. In addition to the four presenters, a discussant will contextualize the presentations within a broader framework of challenges encountered and shared approaches to conserving modern architecture.

The Miller House and Garden
The Miller House and Garden (1957), the Columbus, Indiana, residence of J. Irwin Miller and Xenia S. Miller, is a remarkably well-preserved masterpiece of modern design. A collaboration by architect Eero Saarinen, interior designer Alexander Girard, and landscape architect Dan Kiley, the property is among the most important mid-century homes in America.

The Indianapolis Museum of Art acquired the property in 2009 and determined that it would open the property to the public as a preservation project in substantially the same condition and configuration as when it was received. To aid in forming strategies for ongoing maintenance and preservation, the IMA is fortunate to have extensive archival records of the property’s design, construction, and maintenance over many decades. In addition, some of the original construction contractors remain actively involved at the Miller House and Garden. Former employees constitute another source for information about the site. Using these historical resources in concert with its conservation department’s involvement and oversight, the IMA continues to develop its conservation and maintenance approach to the property and its collections. The IMA continues to develop strategies for conservation projects inside the house and the exterior based on the archives and other shareholders.

Presenters: Bradley Brooks, Director of Historic Resources and Tricia Gilson, Archives and Content Specialist

The Eames House, Case Study House No. 8
Built in 1949, the Eames House was the eighth in the Case Study House program initiated by John Entenza, editor of the influential Arts & architecture magazine, published between 1945 and 1966. The Eames House, designed by Charles and Ray Eames, was the first steel-framed, prefabricated project built for the Case Study House program which promoted new technologically advanced models for mass housing for which there was a huge demand in the immediate postwar years.
The Eames House Conservation Project, the first field project under the banner of Conserving Modern architecture Initiative at the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) focuses on this iconic and hugely influential work of modern architecture. The GCI is working in partnership with the Eames Foundation, together with consultant architects and conservators, to assist the Foundation to develop a long-term conservation management plan that embodies a sustainable approach to the care and conservation of the site, house, and contents including a maintenance program. Development of a conservation management plan will bring together historical documentary and
oral evidence, physical analysis of the existing fabric, including knowledge on its performance, to inform a long-term strategy for the care and conservation of the house the valuable contents which are a testament to the Eames’s lifestyle and interest in design. A well-known tool internationally, the conservation management plan will provide a model for the conservation of similar buildings from this era by demonstrating how thoughtful conservation can be applicable to modern buildings.

Presenters: Kyle Normandin, Senior Project Specialist, Getty Conservation Institute

Speakers
avatar for Tricia Gilson

Tricia Gilson

Archives and Content Specialist, Indianapolis Museum of Art
I'm working on an NEH-funded project to digitize the Miller House and Garden Collection. To see learn more about the project go the project's Tumblr page: http://digitizingmillerhouseandgarden.tumblr.com/
avatar for Kyle Normandin

Kyle Normandin

Senior Project Specialist, Getty Conservation Institute


Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Book and Paper) Art on Paper (Discussion Session): Making Terminology Meaningful: Guiding the Description of Media for Works of Art on Paper
Anyone who studies exhibition wall labels has observed the variation in the descriptions of materials and techniques in works of art on paper, which can be dramatic both in presentation and degree of accuracy even within a single institution. Access to such information through collections databases and websites makes the dissemination of accurate and consistent descriptions increasingly important and highlights the need for a more coordinated, cross-institutional approach. The inaugural session of the Art on Paper Discussion Group (APDG) will focus on this issue.

Conservators’ specialized knowledge and their experience in examining and identifying materials in works of art gives them the unique ability to interpret and present information about artists’ materials and techniques. Their experience also makes them well-suited, in discussion with curators and cataloguers, to help address issues of how to enter the information into collections management systems and how to save it in a detailed format that can be edited or abbreviated for specialized uses (such as wall labels), possibly by defining separate fields for different levels of detail.

The issue of providing accurate, appropriate and consistent descriptive terminology, motivated conservators at the Philadelphia Museum of Art to initiate a Media Terminology Project, supported in-part by an IMLS 21st-Century Museum Professionals Grant and in collaboration with the project’s working group members who represent museums across the country. The project began in November 2011—compiling, reviewing and evaluating existing materials descriptions and guidelines—activities that provided the foundation for drafting guidelines for describing materials and techniques in works on paper and a system for entering the information in collections information systems. Comprehensive supporting documents (glossaries, timelines and materials hierarchies) also were created to facilitate consistency in recording observations made about materials and techniques.

This project’s overarching goal is to enhance conservators’ ability to communicate their knowledge about materials and techniques in order to provide allied professionals with consistent, understandable and agreed upon language for describing works on paper. This in turn will benefit the public by providing clearer, more informative descriptions in catalogues, exhibition wall labels and on the Web. The end result will be the development of a written guide to be shared online through the AIC book and paper Group Paper Conservation Catalog Wiki and other venues.

We hope to engage the wider conservation community in helping to develop the guidelines. To that end, during this year’s APDG session the PMA project conservators and working group members will present the guidelines in their current draft form. They will highlight some of the more complex issues involved in the description of works on paper as well as data entry. Working group members then will lead break-out sessions focused on specific issues to receive contributions and critical feedback from the conservation community to help in the development of the guidelines and assess their effectiveness.

Moderators
avatar for Nancy Ash

Nancy Ash

Senior Conservator of Works of Art on Paper, Philadelphia Museum of Art
Nancy Ash is senior conservator of works of art on paper at the Philadelphia Museum of Art &&#;35;;40&#;59;;PMA&&#;35;;41&#;59;;, where she has worked since 1991. Previously she was senior paper conservator at the Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts in Philadelphia and at the National Gallery of Art before that. In 1998, with co-author Shelley Fletcher she published Watermarks... Read More →

Friday May 31, 2013 10:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Electronic Media) Digital Video Preservation in Museums and Small Collections
In the past 5 years contemporary art museums, and other institutions actively collecting artists’ video, have witnessed a significant technological shift from video tape to digital file as the primary form of video material coming into our care. This shift has been caused by artists producing new work as digital files and also by a change in institutional migration programs as we move from tape to file in response to the ongoing needs of preservation and display.

As a consequence of this shift, institutions rapidly need to become familiar with a new set of technologies for the preservation, storage, and display of video. To effectively respond to these changes, new alliances are needed with the broadcast industry and the archive sector and also, crucially, with the IT domain.

In 2012 project members for Matters in Media Art decided to conduct a small survey in order to create a snap shot of this area of emerging practice. Staff from 12 institutions in the USA and Europe who are recognised as amongst the leaders within our sector in addressing the challenges associated with caring and managing video as digital files were interviewed. In addition to gathering information about practice with regard to both artist supplied digital files and files created during the migration from tape formats, the survey also captured information about the type and size of the video collections and the resources available. The survey has resulted in a greater understanding of the strategies, solutions and challenges these institutions are currently facing.

This paper will discuss the results of the survey and identify common practices that may be generalised for other institutions, as well as identify needs for training and tools.

Speakers
PF

Patricia Falcao

Time-based Media Conservator, Tate
Patricia Falcao is a Time-based Media Conservator at Tate. Her role includes the conservation of new time-based media artworks coming to the Tate Collection. Ms. Falcao is part of a team at Tate developing the processes necessary for preservation of digital artworks. During 2013/14 she researched the use of virtualisation for the preservation of software-based artworks. Ms. Falcao completed her MA at the University of the Arts in Bern with a... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Objects) Intersecting Conservation Approaches to Ethnographic and Contemporary Art: Ephemeral Art at the National Museum of African Art
At the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African Art (NMAFA), conservators apply our experience with preserving ethnographic materials to contemporary works in the collection, and vice versa. While contemporary African art shares significant aspects with global contemporary art trends, materials, and media, it has become apparent to conservators, who work with ethnographic materials, that contemporary objects also share many characteristics with tradition-based objects. These include: the use of composite media on a single object; the use of re-purposed materials; the use of fugitive materials; and the elaborate constructions of temporal installations. My conservation colleagues Steve Mellor, Dana Moffett and I at NMAFA have found that the ethnographic conservator’s repertoire and familiarity with the wide range of materials found in anthropological collections is readily applicable to aspects of the conservation of contemporary art. Drawing on a number of African tradition-based and contemporary objects case studies, this paper aims to present an overview of the key conservation issues and challenges that ephemeral media have presented at the Museum.

The permanent collection of the National Museum of African Art includes both tradition-based and contemporary objects, which sometimes employ fugitive materials or media that render them ephemeral. Among these exists a smaller grouping of objects which are ephemeral by design. To comprehensively fulfill its mission to collect and preserve the visual arts of Africa, NMAFA began acquiring contemporary works in the 1990s, while continuing to collect tradition-based art. The Museum has subsequently amassed the largest public collection of contemporary African art in the United States. Since 1997, a large gallery has been devoted to contemporary African art, in which rotating exhibitions are always on view.

Ephemeral materials pose challenges on conceptual and practical levels to the conservators faced with their display, treatment, and preservation. Indeed, the concept of ephemeral-by-design stands in direct opposition to the major tenet of conservation: the preservation of cultural patrimony for future generations. The conservation challenges inherent to ephemeral art have been addressed by a number of conservation conferences and attendant publications. Issues of unpredictability, permanence, and deterioration processes particular to ephemeral materials, as well as particular legal and ethical conservation considerations, have been widely discussed by conservators.

Working with art created by living artists, as we navigate between the sometimes-competing demands of preservation of the physical art work and respect of artistic intent, involves complex issues. These may include: artistic intent, conservation ethics, historicity, authenticity, functionality, exhibition installation, and the preservation of original materials vs. (sometimes) complete restoration. The conservation process can be protracted, involving an interdisciplinary team consisting of conservators, conservation scientists, curators, anthropologists, artists, artisans, studio assistants, fabricators, and gallerists.

The ethnographic object conservator’s wide knowledge of materials is particularly suited to the conservation of categories of contemporary art and we look forward to continued collaborations with our conservation colleagues, who focus on contemporary art. This paper’s juxtapositions of African tradition-based and contemporary art examples will address these topics: the challenges of the ephemeral-by-design concept; the complexity of contemporary installations; the conservator as artist’s surrogate; and both shared and divergent aspects of ethnographic and contemporary art conservation, as applied to ephemeral art.

Speakers
avatar for Stephanie Hornbeck

Stephanie Hornbeck

Director of Conservation, Caryatid Conservation Services, Inc.
Stephanie Hornbeck is Director of Conservation at Caryatid Conservation Services, Inc., a private practice specializing in the professional care of three-dimensional objects. From 1998-2009, she was Conservator at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art. Stephanie specializes in ethnographic, contemporary, and decorative art objects. More information may be found at www.caryatid-conservation.com.


Friday May 31, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Paintings) The Treatment of Efflorescence and Pollution-Darkened Water Sensitive Paint in the Vanka Murals of St. Nicholas First Croatian Catholic Church
The St. Nicholas First Croatian Catholic Church, located in Millvale, Pennsylvania, a borough neighboring Pittsburgh, contains expansive murals painted by the Croatian immigrant artist Maximilian Vanka in the 1930s and 1940s. Pictorial content in the 22 murals covers 11,000 square feet of interior space and depicts scenes of industry, religion, social injustice, and the horrors of war. In the 75 years since their completion, the murals have been subjected to a variety of damage. A hurricane in 2004 struck the building, resulting in water infiltration in the walls and the development of local areas of efflorescent bloom on the murals. Further, pollutants from industry and auto emissions have resulted in darkening colors of the surface of the murals. This case study addresses shortcomings of previous treatment materials, treatment of efflorescence using inorganic materials designed for murals, and removal of dirt from the water-sensitive surface by using new materials designed for the conservation of modern paints. Samples collected from untreated efflorescence were examined by scanning electron microscopy – energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), identifying a strong presence of sulfur in the salts. The presence of sulfur supported the application of the inorganic method, known in Italy as the “barium method” or the “Ferroni−Dini Method”, to chemically de-sulfate the efflorescence and re-form calcium hydroxide by the use of poultices. Test areas were examined using SEM/EDS before and after poultice application to confirm the reformation of calcium in the wall. Once the efficacy of this method was supported, nanoparticles of both barium and calcium were used for improved results. SEM/EDS of samples collected from areas treated by nanoparticles confirmed that sulfates were removed from the surface and stabilization of the wall was successful. Cleaning the water-sensitive medium was handled using recently developed cleaning systems. Aqueous mixtures were adjusted to a lower pH and water/oil emulsion gels were designed to prevent water from penetrating the sensitive surface while lifting surface dirt.

Speakers
avatar for Rikke Foulke

Rikke Foulke

Director/Senior Paintings Conservator, Foulke Fine Art Conservation LLC
Rikke Foulke earned a Master of Arts and Certificate in the Conservation of_x005F_x000D_ | Works of Art from the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University. Rikke held_x005F_x000D_ | positions at the Lenbachhaus in Munich, Germany and the Straus Center for_x005F_x000D_ | Conservation at Harvard University Art Museums. She was the Culpeper Fellow_x005F_x000D_ | in Paintings Conservation at the National Gallery of Art in Washington; the... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Research and Technical Studies) Artificial Aging of Paper-Based Cores Wrapped in Various Isolating Layers for Use as Archival Storage Supports
In this study, the effect of artificially aging paper rolled onto support cores wrapped with isolating materials was examined. Oversized paper artifacts often cannot be stored flat due to their size. Therefore, these artifacts may be rolled onto a paper-based support core, which itself is wrapped with a barrier material for use as a space-saving and long-term archival storage solution. A paper-based support core is made up of a series of paper sheets spiral wound onto one other and bound with an adhesive. Two of the cores chosen for this study were identified as being archival, implying a paper artifact can be rolled directly onto the core for long-term storage without detrimental effect. While both support cores were manufactured with paper that complied with the archival standards outlined by the Library of Congress, one core was bound using sodium silicate while the other was made using a proprietary blend of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and polyvinyl acetate (PVA). The second two cores were identified as being non-archival. However, they were included in this study as they are occasionally used by conservation professionals. One support core was comprised of kraft paper and an unknown adhesive (supplier not able to identify) while the other consisted of recycled paper and a PVA/acrylic based adhesive. Five isolating layer materials were selected: a polyethylene non-woven film (PE), a multilayered film comprised of polyethylene, aluminum foil, and nylon, a polyethylene terephthalate film (PET), a heavy duty aluminum foil, and a tissue paper containing 3.5% calcium carbonate buffer. The effect of no isolating layer was also examined. Whatman no. 1 cotton paper (W1) was chosen as the model archival paper to be rolled onto each of the 24 support cores. Magnets were used to hold the W1 paper and isolating layer in contact with the cores during artificial aging. Tubes were artificially aged at 90°C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for up to 24 weeks and sampled at various time points. Changes to the yellowness index (YI) and pH of the W1 paper were examined to understand how well the isolating layers succeeded as a barrier, preventing transfer of volatile elements from the core to the archival object. Preliminary results indicate at these aging conditions, heavy duty aluminum foil was the best isolating layer.

Speakers
CH

Catherine H. Stephens

Senior Scientist
I am a conservation scientist that conducts basic and applied research at the Art Conservation Research Center, a 55-year-old conservation science lab headquartered at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. My current specialty is to understand the aging of paper and ways to impede it. I can use all sorts of analytical equipment &#40&#59;FT-IR, ESI-MS, DESI-MS, GPC, tensile tests, accelerated humid oven aging... Read More →
AB

Amy B. Williams

Conservator, University of Pittsburgh


Friday May 31, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Textiles) Emergence of “Antique” Synthetic (Textiles)
After the Du Pont Company came out with nylon and gave birth to the synthetic polymer fiber industry the world was presented with an alternative raw material for clothes-making that did not involve the use of natural fibers or come from natural sources. Little did the world know about the intense research that went on behind the scenes, and the resultant accumulation of artifacts that document the road to that giant step. Hagley Museum and Library in Wilmington, Delaware is the depository for the autoclave in which Wallace Carothers invented nylon, his research notebooks and the myriad of sample fibers, the first spools of fibers to roll off the mills, the first nylon shirt ever made, women’s slip made out of parachute grade nylon, pre-production wear-tested dresses and more. The collection tells the story of how to produce brightly-colored fabrics out of “plastic” fibers that would not accept the dyes of the era, struggling to spin the new fiber on mills that were designed for spinning wool and cotton, and how to romanticize “wrapping ourselves in plastic” as it were.

Synthetic fibers posed a strong challenge to the reign of King Cotton yet the king held its own. But synthetic fibers fought back and proved to be just as supple, attractive and comfortable as silk; hail the arrival of Qiana nylon. Since that first discovery, several new and contemporary crude oil based textile materials have revolutionalized the textile industry.

Now, these unlikely collectors’ textiles are rapidly filling museum storages the world over. They are being collected because they were worn by movie stars and pop stars, famous leaders and princesses, or were designed by some of the world’s renowned fashion designers. To most of us conservators, antique clothing means clothing made of natural fibers. So where do synthetic clothing fall in the complex admixture of textiles worth preserving? What are the conservation issues regarding synthetic fibers?

Some clues to their preservation may lie in their manufacturing processes. Knowledge of the nature of, and the timeline for the emergence of important synthetic clothing items such as Lycra, Orlon, Dacron, Qiana, Nomex, will help to access their condition. It will be good to examine the methods and techniques of the original inventors of these materials. The collection at Hagley can help shed some light on these issues.

Speakers
EK

Ebenezer Kotei

Objects Conservatgor, Hagley Museum and Library
Present Position_x005F_x000D_ 1)Objects Conservator_x005F_x000D_ Hagley Museum & Library_x005F_x000D_ P.O. Box 3630_x005F_x000D_ Wilmington, Delaware 19807 - U.S.A._x005F_x000D_ 2)Adjunct Assistant Professor_x005F_x000D_ Winterthur/University of Delaware Program In Art Conservation _x005F_x000D_ Old College, Newark, Delaware – U.S.A._x005F_x000D_ _x005F_x000D_ Experience/Achievement_x005F_x000D_ • 1988 to present - Objects... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Wooden Artifacts) Flight of Memory: The Conservation of a Temporary Structure for the 9/11 Memorial Museum
As the rate of change in the physical surroundings of American society continues to accelerate, and we race to create or own the next “New Thing”, the nature of the meaning of individual objects is changing. In essence, all objects are becoming ephemeral. We may value a design, but less the object that embodies that design. Instead, significance and emotional weight is often transferred to objects through their symbolic association with more abstract ideas of meaning and importance. For the conservator, this means that our efforts at preservation are more and more frequently directed at artifacts never intended to last for long, and whose importance as objects lies less in their physicality than in the symbolic meaning they represent.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001, during the recovery at Ground Zero in New York City, a special platform was constructed to allow family members of the victims to view the recovery efforts in a private setting away from the general public. The structure was intended to be temporary, and was built out of pressure treated lumber. Family members used the structure as a canvas to write memorial messages, transforming the platform into a spontaneous artifact of memory and meaning. As the World Trade Center Site translated from a recovery effort into a construction site, the platform and stairs were removed and the component elements were saved and stored by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
Ownership of the platform components was eventually transferred by the PANYNJ to the 9/11 Memorial Museum, which incorporated the stairs to the viewing platform into its exhibition design. When I started working on the project in the summer of 2011, the stairs were partially dismantled and stored in a climate-modified tent within the PANYNJ’s 9/11-related storage facility, Hangar 17 at JFK Airport. As an object, the flight of stairs was very different from furniture normally encountered in museum settings. Its meaning resided not in its form or the artistry of its construction and decoration, but rather in its power to evoke and represent the poignancy of its original purpose. The inscriptions, written in everything from stable graphite and chalk to highly fugitive felt-tip inks, served to endow the entire structure with meaning.
Treatment of the stairs involved replacement of the original nails with stainless steel removable fasteners, insertion of some small new structural elements to replace missing elements that were part of the larger platform, the creation of 3D computer drawings of the stairs for the design team, and the digital photography documentation of all inscriptions on all surfaces of the stairs. All of these treatment efforts had to have as their primary goal the preservation of the fleeting inscriptions, left by people suffering profound loss, recording their thoughts, prayers, hopes and memories on this once temporary, but now transformed, piece of assembled lumber.

Speakers
avatar for John Childs

John Childs

Senior Conservator, Art Preservation Services


Friday May 31, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Electronic Media) Wrangling Electricity: Lessons Learned from the Mass Migration of Analog and Digital Media for Preservation and Exhibition
In 2011, the Museum of Modern Art began a process of making its extensive video art collection of over 1500 works available to the public through an installation of interactive monitors in the galleries. With a collection that spans the history of independent video production, the project was especially urgent because of video degradation in some of the early works, technology obsolescence, and the availability of some of the original artists. To facilitate the project, an in-house transfer and monitoring station was established at the museum. Numerous systems were developed for transport, in-house migration, metadata capture, working with artists, and outsourcing some of the migration. Now with over half the material migrated and the launch of MoMA’s media lounge in February 2012, a large body of information has been collected that helps inform best practices in migrating and managing video art. This presentation will detail the project workflow that was formulated in collaboration with MoMA’s media conservators, curators, registrars, audiovisual staff, and IT department. Special attention will be paid to the question of in-house migration vs. vending out to specialized transfer houses. Examples will be drawn from the project to illustrate challenges in migrating analog and digital material and the impact of performing migration and other media conservation work within the museum. Whether you are dealing with 1 analog source or 100,000, this presentation will hopefully further the discussion on the conservation of analog and digital moving image material.

Speakers
PO

Peter Oleksik

Assistant Media Conservator, Museum of Modern Art
Peter Oleksik is an Assistant Media Conservator at The Museum of Modern Art in New York. He holds an MA in Moving Image Archiving and Preservation (MIAP) from New York University, where he is currently an Adjunct Professor teaching video preservation. His past work includes the access driven preservation of Dischord Records/Fugazi archive, which led to the Fugazi Live Series (http://www.dischord.com/fugazi_live_series) and the ongoing... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Objects) Restoring the Immaterial: Using New Media to Communicate Context
As conservators, we necessarily immerse ourselves in the material nature of artwork. This focus ranges from active stabilization of the work to passive intervention—always holding the physical concerns of the work paramount. These efforts have an ambitious goal: to preserve the creator’s original intent, or, as is often the case with archaeological or ethnographic objects, to preserve information that communicates an object’s original use or purpose. Yet, however present the actual work of art may be, our efforts are challenged by the incontrovertible fact that often, the intangible aspects of the work’s creation are necessarily lost when the object is removed from its original context, or when that context itself evolves over time.

Conservators approach this challenge in a number of ways, including developing guidelines to help return an historic interior to its appearance at a particular time; advising institutions on how to display objects in ways sympathetic to original context; or providing external information about the object’s creation to the viewer. These solutions all attempt to communicate the environment in which the object was created, or even the environment in which it lived for centuries before coming to light in our time.

Today, new media tools, for instance interactive tablet applications, podcasts, videos, and even augmented reality, offer an effective means by which context might be suggested in experiential, holistic ways. Such didactics can be thought of as a more conceptual restoration, one that approaches the object from other vantage points than its materiality. The information available to the conservator’s eye is crucial to these efforts, as the physical traces of the object’s past environments are readable on its surface, and the details of an object’s creation so often reveal the thoughts, influences, and unique approaches of its creator. For an audience accustomed to seeing art objects cleanly divorced from their original context, this information places the object back into the real world and thus allows an entirely different experience.

Our first foray into this realm has involved partnering with educators who make short videos focusing on bringing art objects back into the “real” world, and relating their stories and context. This collaboration has great promise, as the information we provide broadens this recreated context in new and engaging ways. But it is clear that conservators and many other professionals around the world have avidly embraced new media tools for this purpose. We propose to both present our experience to date and also gather the stories of others working in this area to give the objects Specialty Group audience an overview of current efforts to contextualize objects. Examples might include the simulated location and original lighting conditions of liturgical sculpture, or the use of 3D imaging to virtually place the sculpture back in its intended niche, or interactive recreations of fragmentary archaeological objects, structures and sites. Emerging partnerships encouraged by conservators’ involvement in recreating context will also be considered—with web developers, graphic designers, archaeologists, engineers, and especially educators and curators. Finally, we also aim to discuss briefly some of the theoretical questions that arise from this topic. Is providing a generally accurate, though perhaps not perfectly interpreted, context better than providing none at all? Where do we draw the line between “Disneyfication” of art objects and the provision of a human context for them? The overall goal will be to engender discussion of the possibilities for conservators to participate in a “virtual” conservation of an object’s context and life.

Speakers
SB

Sarah Barack

Adjunct, Conservation Center, SBE Conservation LLC
Sarah Barack studied Old World Art and Archaeology at Brown University. She received her Masters in Art History and Advanced Certificate in Conservation from the Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts at New York University in 2003. She also holds an MBA from Columbia University. After completing a Mellon Fellowship in the Sherman Fairchild Center for Objects Conservation at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, focused on a technical study of... Read More →
avatar for Beth M. Edelstein

Beth M. Edelstein

Associate Conservator, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Department of Objects Conservation


Friday May 31, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Paintings) Assembly-Line Conservation for the Recovery of Haitian (Paintings)
Every single painting to be conserved in the “atelier” at the Haiti Cultural Recovery Center (SIHCHR) was severely damaged and in need of urgent care. The overwhelming and scary sight of these wrecked paintings, dug out from the rubble after the 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince, never intimidated the fourteen AIC Professional Conservators that worked in the first International Smithsonian Institution project.

The author of this paper was contracted by the Smithsonian Institution to work and oversee activities at the SIHCHR paintings conservation studio. Stephanie Hornbeck, the project’s chief conservator, handed me the list of paintings to be conserved as well as those with treatment in progress. Due to budget constraints, I found myself having to rapidly adapt to the two-week on-site and two-week back in the US working schedule while following up on treatments started by previous conservators. With the help AIC P/A volunteers, I was able to implement an ‘assembly-line’ conservation program. I would meet with one of the volunteers during one week of my stay to discuss the work, agree upon and perform treatments together. The baton would then be handed to the conservator who continued the work with the local assistants. Discussions among the volunteer conservator and I regarding treatments would continue over the Internet. Two weeks later, back in Haiti, I would pick up the baton to continue the treatment on the various paintings and get the work ready for the next conservator volunteer.
While conducting very complex treatments we were also able to train three skillful and dedicated Haitian artists and art teachers at the Ecole Nationale des Arts (ENARTS), who assisted in the project. In the course of four months, the team efforts were reflected on the sixteen Haitian paintings that were recovered from the disaster.

In this paper, I will describe the assembly-line conservation process used in the successful restoration of the paintings that originally were in such a deteriorated state that it would have been a formidable challenge for any laboratory in the world. I will present the case study of a selected group of paintings from some Haitian leading modern and contemporary artists. Some of these paintings include Mario Benjamin’s Portrait of an Old Woman recovered from the National Palace in five pieces, Stevenson Magloire’s painting representing Jean Bertrand Aristide as a priest, brought to the Center in eight pieces, and Max Pinchinat ‘s Portrait of Lady.

Traditional treatments met innovative methods. There were many cases where the lack of materials or proper equipment forced us to be very creative. We faced other challenges like compensating for large losses while at the same time acknowledging their historical value as a result of the 2010 earthquake that so deeply affected Haitian culture.

Speakers
avatar for Viviana Dominguez

Viviana Dominguez

Chief Conservator, Art Conservators Lab LLC
Viviana Dominguez is a specialist in conservation of large-scale works of art on public places wall paintings and easel paintings. She has worked in the field since 1983, preserving national monuments internationally. She has broad experienced on a large variety of materials and paint finish as she has worked with colleagues in the field of monumental sculpture and architectural conservation including lime-based paint. Ms. Dominguez has conducted... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Research and Technical Studies) Maintaining Clarity: Developing a Methodology for Long-Term Studies of Conservation Adhesives and Processes for PMMA
This study establishes a framework for long-term investigations of conservation adhesives and processes for poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) architectural models, furniture, paintings, photographs and sculpture. Samples of 20 year old adhesives on PMMA that were aged in different environments were investigated for molecular changes and visual acceptability for conservation repairs. Conservation treatments are presented alongside unresolved challenges to demonstrate the need to develop robust assessment methodologies, both to identify risks and to establish useful long-term investigations. Data from previous studies is compared to the initial findings in this study.

Speakers
DS

Donald Sale

Conservation Guest Scholar, Getty Conservation Institute


Friday May 31, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Textiles) A “Green” Solvent for Textile Conservation?: Examining the Potential of Cyclosiloxane D5 as an Alternative Cleaning Solvent
Concerns about the health and environmental impacts of some solvents used in textile conservation have signaled the need for more environmentally friendly alternatives. At the same time, “green” cleaning solvents have begun to be developed by the professional dry cleaning industry. One of these alternative solvents, a cyclic silicon-based liquid, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), may have potential for use in textile conservation, however there previously have been no studies to show how its use may impact textile artifacts. In this study, the “green” profile of D5 was reviewed, along with a look at it structure, properties and potential for solubility. A series of experiments was performed to test the effects of D5 on textiles and to examine its soil removal performance. The samples used in testing were soiled and unsoiled new cotton and wool fabrics, some of which were artificially aged. Analysis of the effect of D5 on textile substrates employed Attenuated Total Reflectance- Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, tensile strength tests, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Soil removal tests were analyzed using colorimetry and ATR-FTIR. In the results of the analysis, no appreciable difference in the condition and composition of treated and untreated samples could be detected. D5 was shown to have significant effect on nonpolar soiling. Assessment of the overall results suggests that there is potential for use of D5 within the textile conservation field, however limitations of the trials indicate a need for more research.

Speakers
JB

Julie Benner

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Textile Conservation, Denver Art Museum
Julie Benner is currently an Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Fellow in Textile Conservation at the Denver Art Museum. She completed her Master's at the University of Glasgow Centre for Textile Conservation and Technical Art History. She has previously worked as Assistant Conservator of Textiles at the Chicago History Museum and interned at the Field Museum of Natural History and the Art Institute of Chicago.
FL

Frances Lennard

Reader/Senior Lecturer in Textile Conservation, University of Glasgow


Friday May 31, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Wooden Artifacts) We Can Fix It But Should We? Take 2: Contemporary Art Comes Knocking
A local private collector approached the Studio of Fallon & Wilkinson LLC to consult on the treatment of a contemporary piece made by California based studio furniture maker and wood sculptor John Cederquist (born August 7th, 1946).

The piece, a “Kosode” form two-door cabinet, had sustained severe UV damage with significant fading of the originally colorfully dyed surface design elements. The surface decoration included a Mickey Mouse Arm using a traditional wood plane, inlaid wood shavings falling from the tool, checkerboard “parquetry”, geometric clan signs, and Japanese writing. The inside of the cabinet was protected from the UV exposure and subsequently retained the wonderful rich color and surface characteristics that had disappeared from the front of the cabinet.

The client’s request was to conserve and restore the vibrant dye and ink colors and surface topcoat to the now faded areas, particularly on the large front of the cabinet, which is shaped like a life sized kimono.

As conservators, occasionally we are asked to undertake treatments that ultimately may have complex professional, ethical and market valuation considerations, and these issues become a large part of the equation when dealing with Contemporary Art.

This paper will explore these issues, and the journey it takes to find the answers.

Speakers
TF

Tad Fallon

Principal, Fallon & Wilkinson, LLC
Tad Fallon grew up around art and antiques, working within the family business, Copake Auctions Inc., prior to college. In 1991, after beginning college as a studio art major, he entered the Fashion Institute of Technology’s Restoration program in New York City and studied decorative arts restoration. After graduation he worked at Sotheby’s Restoration as a supervisor in the Finishing Department. In 1996 he was accepted to the... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

12:00pm

(Objects) Archaelogical Discussion Group Business Meeting
Need

Friday May 31, 2013 12:00pm - 1:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom G 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

12:00pm

Wiki Edit-a-thon & Training Luncheon
Help us expand our AIC knowledge base available on the AIC wiki (www.conservation-wiki.com)! Join colleagues in our first live, in-person edit-a-thon event to add and edit content.  If you are not already trained on MediaWiki feel free to bring content to contribute on a flash drive and our trained wiki Creators will help you put it up.  If you are already a contributor, enjoy the opportunity to work collaboratively, face-to-face on a topic of your choice.  Lunch is provided during this two-hour session, led by AIC e-Editor Rachael Perkins Arenstein.

Sponsors
avatar for Dr. Mary Striegel

Dr. Mary Striegel

Chief of Materials Conservation, NCPTT
Mary F. Striegel is Chief of Materials Conservation at the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training. She heads up basic and applied research that focuses on evaluation of preservation treatments for preventing damage to cultural resources. She and her staff undertake a wide range of projects from studying the removal graffiti from cultural heritage to developing new stone consolidants based on emerging nanotechnologies. Mary heads... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 12:00pm - 2:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom I-J 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

1:00pm

Special Dessert & Discussion
Friday May 31, 2013 1:00pm - 2:00pm
JW Marriott Griffin Hall 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Contemporary Art Session 1) Making Marks: An Ethical Dilemma in the Creation of Art
Artist Todd Pavlisko has made his mark as a conceptual artist, most notably with the video triptych Centerpiece, which documents him driving a nail through his own foot. When an exhibition of Pavlisko’s work was proposed for the summer of 2013 at the Cincinnati Art Museum, little was known of what the artist would suggest for a new work which would relate to the museum gallery space and collection. Therefore, when Pavlisko submitted a proposal involving a former Navy SEAL firing a tactical rifle inside the Cincinnati Art Museum many staff members were rightfully concerned but the museum was committed to the exhibition and wanting to support an artist with local roots.With one curator strongly in support of the project, another adamantly opposed, and the rest of us stuck somewhere in between, we were left to work out a solution to a dilemma that challenged our ethics and the museum standards we are so dedicated to uphold.The safety of staff, art work, and the physical building were of immediate concern.We were also required to consult with our fine art insurer to see what penalties we might encounter.

With a verdict that we would proceed, a second even more challenging decision had to be made: temporarily relocate two life-size marble sculptures or allow a professional marksman to fire a tactical rifle twelve inches to the side? The instinctive reaction was to move the sculptures;however what action was honestly more likely to put the objects at risk, physically moving them to and from with gantry or allowing someone who is professionally trained to make the mark? Conversations, while focused on the objects’ safety, strayed to the professional conscience. What will my colleagues think? Will the institution earn a bad reputation leading to the withdrawal of loans or exhibitions? Or will it have the opposite effect and mark the Cincinnati Art Museum as a progressive institution in the contemporary and conceptual art world?

This presentation will provide an overview of the project and subsequent exhibition, while focusing on the decision making process, the outcome, and final thoughts on the success of the project.

Speakers
avatar for Megan J. Emery

Megan J. Emery

Associate Conservator of Objects, Cincinnati Art Museum


Friday May 31, 2013 2:00pm - 2:20pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:00pm

(Contemporary Art Session 2) Conservation Treatment of Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen’s sculpture Monument to the Last Horse, 1991 at The Chinati Foundation, Marfa, Texas
This paper presents the recently developed conservation method for Monument to the Last Horse, a large scale outdoor sculpture by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen from 1991.

The treatment is the first known and documented example of treating an outdoor sculpture comprised of the unusual materials of aluminum, polyurethane foam – and resin, primer and paint, materials not commonly used in combination for outdoor sculpture.


The sculpture materials, chosen because they mimicked the mud from the surrounding landscape adhering to a horseshoe, were exposed to the harsh climate of the Marfa desert environment for over 20 years.

The combined materials presented unprecedented challenges for conservation.

A two year research phase, including material testing, close collaboration with the fabricators of the art work and the artists as well as consultations with other conservators and companies resulted in a conservation concept and treatment plan, which was approved by Claes Oldenburg early in 2011.

The paper will discuss the idea of the sculpture, the fabrication, the conservation history and condition of the sculpture over the years, the research approach, tests and test results, which finally culminated in the treatment plan.

The conservation treatment required the removal of the original paint layer, which had been on the sculpture for 21 years, despite its original life expectancy of only five to eight years.

The original paint layer not only depicted the earthy brown of the “mud” stuck to the horseshoe and gave the sculpture a finished appearance but it, originally, also protected the PUR foam and PUR resin from UV radiation, wind and rain. In the course of its 21 year life span the paint layer had however lost its gloss, become water soluble, was abraded regularly by windborne sand particles, and lost adhesion to the primer layer underneath it.

The original paint layer was also heavily marked by earlier repairs and had to be removed to treat damages in the original PUR resin and PUR foam layers, caused by its failure over time, and to establish a solid foundation for applying a new paint layer.

The paper further describes and discusses the removal of the paint layer, the treatment of cracks and voids in the polyurethane foam as well as in the polyurethane resin and the application of new primer- and paint layers.

Thanks to the close collaboration with the artists and the fabricator, the conservation treatment to Monument to the Last Horse was successful. Conservation treatment not only substantially stabilized the sculpture, but restored the appearance the artists had envisioned for it.


Speakers
BL

Bettina Landgrebe

Director of Conservation, Chinati Foundation


Friday May 31, 2013 2:00pm - 2:20pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:20pm

(Contemporary Art Session 1) Nam June Paik: Global Visionary. From the Archive to the exhibition.
This paper, which is about mounting a complex exhibition, will highlight the efforts made to preserve and restore Nam June Paik’s Archive and artwork. The influence of the artist’s own philosophy about materials and the role of curatorial interpretation will be integral to the discussion of the conservation and restoration work carried out for the exhibition “Nam June Paik: Global Visionary”.

The Smithsonian American Art Museum acquired the Nam June Paik Archive in 2009. Nam June Paik (1932-2006) transformed video into an artist’s medium and has had a major influence on late 20th century art and continues to inspire living artists. The Nam June Paik Archive includes works of art in various media such as paintings, drawings on newspapers and paper, sculptures, videos and televisions. In addition, there are numerous materials the artist collected for future artworks. Electronic media for presenting the artist’s video installations makes up a large part of the archive.

Materials from the archive as well as from the permanent collection of the museum will be on display in the exhibition “Nam June Paik: Global Visionary” from December 2012-August 2013. The work done by a team of designer, curators, an electronics integrator, and conservators will be presented. Considerations and decisions made about the display of both archive material and electronic media will be discussed. The various ways in which the museum collaborated with other institutions in securing loans will also be addressed. The restoration of electronic media including multi-channel installations of Electronic “Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S., Alaska, Hawaii“ and “Megatron/Matrix” will be reviewed and evaluated. The restoration of a robot assemblage, made of composite materials and television screens, will help illustrate how artwork is appropriated for Social Media purposes in promoting an exhibition.

Speakers
TD

Tiarna Doherty

Chief of Conservation, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Tiarna became Chief of Conservation at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in 2011. Previously, Tiarna worked for nine years as a paintings conservator at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles. She holds a bachelor’s degree in both chemistry and art history from Tufts University, and a master’s degree in painting conservation from the Winterthur/University of Delaware art conservation program. Tiarna is a Directory Board member of the... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 2:20pm - 2:40pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:20pm

(Contemporary Art Session 2) Modern Ruins Restored: the Conservation of Monday, Wednesday, Saturday
The three element sculpture, Monday, Wednesday, Saturday was made in 1984 by the Canadian artist collective General Idea, as an installation element for their first international, traveling retrospective. The sculptures echo phallic votive forms in Pompeian frescos, and abstract cornucopias - the horn-shaped vessels commonly depicted as overflowing with produce and fruit. They were displayed with other art objects which imitated ruins and ancient murals, complete with fake losses and stains.

The original sculptures were made of thin layers of pigmented plaster over a polyurethane foam interior, and were damaged by handling and transit between Basel, where they were constructed, and Eindhoven – the first venue of the exhibition. Subsequent travel – to Toronto and Montreal was deemed practically impossible by the artists, and the sculptures were abandoned in Europe, to be refabricated in Toronto for the third venue. The refabrications, of similar construction but paler coloring, incurred similar damages from travel as the originals resulting in a network of prominent mechanical cracks over their entire surface. After the final venue, the sculptures were placed in storage where they would remain for 24 years, until they were donated to the National Gallery of Canada (NGC) by General Idea’s only surviving artist, AA Bronson.

The Fellowship project explored these sculptures and examined treatment options, working with curatorial staff inside and out the NGC, and perhaps most importantly, the surviving member of the artist collective, AA Bronson. Technical or anecdotal information about construction was scarce and perplexing, so study was undertaken – namely x-radiography of the structures, and sampling and analysis of the plaster and foam components. In addition, a partial-size mock-up was fabricated.

Early examination and analytical study determined the three six-foot sculptures were composed of a polyurethane ester foam interior, covered with thin, pigmented gypsum. Experiments were conducted to find a suitable treatment to remove the foam and reinforce the gypsum shell should they indeed be made of the ester foam, prone to inherent degradation even without adverse environmental factors, while further analysis was conducted to validate the foam’s composition. Consolidants and fill materials were tested to stabilize the fragile plaster surface, and ultimately used to treat the sculptures when the final analysis concluded the foam is the less problematic polyurethane ether.

This unique project presented the opportunity to find a suitable treatment for Monday, Wednesday, Saturday by addressing the challenging structural issues and fragile matte, porous, and otherwise sensitive surface of the sculptures, while paying attention to aesthetic, historic, and philosophical issues. By working together with AA Bronson, NGC navigated concerns for the sculptures’ treatment and explored possible options to ensure Monday, Wednesday, Saturday could be exhibited in the future.


Speakers
avatar for Tasia Bulger

Tasia Bulger

Assistant Conservator, Paintings, National Gallery of Canada


Friday May 31, 2013 2:20pm - 2:40pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:40pm

(Contemporary Art Session 1) Working Together Through Hard Truths: The Conservation and Exhibition of Thornton Dial’s Complex Artworks
The contemporary artist Thornton Dial was born in 1928 in Sumter County, Alabama; his work is rooted in the under-represented visual art traditions of the African-American South and presents potent commentaries about social issues such as war, racism, politics, and poverty. While his work has been included in the Whitney Biennial as well as in solo exhibitions at the New Museum, the Houston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Museum of American Folk Art, the Indianapolis Museum of Art’s touring exhibition Hard Truths: The Art of Thornton Dial, is the most extensive and widely recognized show of the artist’s work ever mounted.

Dial creates very large, complex assemblages of scavenged materials—textiles, scrap metal, animal bones and hides, plastics, wood, glass, epoxy modeling compound, and paint. Many of the materials in the works were already in a deteriorated state at the time in which Dial created his artworks, and most of the works were subjected to storage conditions that did not meet museum standards before the exhibition. These facts made the artworks especially challenging to prepare, pack, ship and conserve. In order to do so, IMA conservators traveled twice to Dial’s studio in Bessamer, Alabama to interview Dial in order to learn more about him as an artist and how to approach the care of his work. Discussions with the artist and his family directly informed the approach that the IMA followed throughout the entire exhibition process. Many pieces included in the show required fumigation and treatment ahead of the exhibition. As the exhibition proceeded, further challenges were faced as damages occurred during shipping of the works between venues.

Close collaboration between the registrar, textile and object conservators, mountmaker, and curator was essential to making the exhibition a success. This paper will present the honest story about the challenges of planning and executing this exhibition of immensely important, but complex and fragile contemporary works of art. While the inherent risks in transporting these artworks were recognized by the IMA staff, it was clear to those involved in the project that these risks were greatly outweighed by the opportunity to introduce Dial’s work to a wide audience.



Speakers
LK

Laura Kubick

Assistant Conservator of Objects and Variable Art, Indianapolis Museum of Art
Laura Kubick is the Assistant Conservator of Objects and Variable Art at the Indianapolis Museum of Art, where she works with all types of objects in the IMA's diverse collection. Her recent work has included treatment of an 18th century polychromed Christ figure, treatment of works by Thornton Dial, research on a painted cabinet by Emile Bernard, and preparation of objects in the IMA's contemporary design and Asian collections for exhibition... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 2:40pm - 3:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

2:40pm

(Contemporary Art Session 2) Conservation of Wrapped TV, 1967 by Christo and Nam June Paik
This proposal presents the conservation of a 1967 collaborative work by Christo and Nam June Paik, Wrapped TV, which was undertaken in 2011 – 2012. The ethical and practical decisions that were required of the project both prior to and throughout the course of treatment are representative of the unique challenges that arise from the conservation of contemporary art.

Wrapped TV consists of Nam June Paik’s work—a small CRT placed inside a five-sided Plexiglas box—that is wrapped with flexible PVC sheet and tied with string and twine by Christo. The object has undergone natural deterioration of the PVC, the cordage, and the Plexi glue joints. Separately, extensive damage to the Plexiglas incurred during a move rendered the object structurally unsound to hold the CRT in place. Broken Plexi also threatened to cause further damage to the PVC wrapping as the object is shifted during handling. Furthermore, damage to the Plexi distorted the overall shape of the wrapped form.

Three options were available regarding the conservation of the object: 1) Leave the work as is while acknowledging the potential damage that the broken Plexi may cause the plastic wrapping as well as the likelihood of further alterations to the shape of the object. 2) Undertake treatment of the work, which calls for opening the plastic wrapping, examining the CRT for evidence of past treatment, stabilizing the Plexiglas box, reattaching the CRT to the Plexi, stabilizing all plastic hardware, overall cleaning, and re-wrapping of the PVC. 3) Consider Christo’s offer to re-wrap the work with new plastic and/or cordage. The last option raised concerns regarding alterations to object’s appearance and original intent, the addition of new materials, and the loss of original materials. It also raised the question of how the work would be understood and dated after such an extensive reworking.

The decision to treat Wrapped TV is guided by the object’s safety, the limited window of time available before the PVC film becomes too brittle to move, and the decision to preserve the work’s 1967 materials and date. Treatment was undertaken as described under option 2 with the aim of providing structural stability with minimal visual impact. The treatment retained original hardware and used online digital machining to fabricate mounts that allowed broken original plastic elements to be stabilized and retained.

Speakers
MD

Margo Delidow

Sculpture Conservator, Whryta Contemporary Art Conservation
EM

Eric Meier

Contemporary Art Specialist, Whryta Contemporary Art Conservation
avatar for Jessica L Pace

Jessica L Pace

Project Conservator for Objects, Brooklyn Museum


Friday May 31, 2013 2:40pm - 3:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:00pm

(Contemporary Art Session 1) Robert Rauschenberg at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: an Online Scholarly Catalogue
The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art is fortunate to possess an outstanding collection of works by the late Robert Rauschenberg. The collection includes early paintings that depart from typical painting practice, fragile mixed-media collage, graphic works that defy the traditional use of paper media, and sculptures incorporating found objects. The Rauschenberg holdings at SFMOMA were substantially expanded in 1999 when works which were retained in the artist’s own collection were made available for acquisition by the museum.

SFMOMA honors Robert Rauschenberg’s legacy by exhibiting, lending and studying these works while taking appropriate conservation measures to insure that the Rauschenberg collection will be exhibited and enjoyed in perpetuity. The SFMOMA conservation and curatorial staff have worked closely with the Rauschenberg Foundation throughout the accession process and during subsequent study of the collection.

In 2009, SFMOMA received a planning grant from the Getty Foundation’s Online Scholarly Catalogue Initiative to catalogue all eighty-eight works by Robert Rauschenberg in the permanent collection. A second award was received in early 2012 to support the full implementation of the online catalogue. The Getty Online Scholarly Catalogue has provided a special opportunity for SFMOMA’s conservation staff to study the museum’s Rauschenberg collection in depth, and to treat several of these masterpieces.

The Online Scholarly Catalogue will introduce readers to information that has been previously difficult, if not impossible, to access via traditional hard-copy publications.

The website will present interviews with Rauschenberg, documentation which captures SFMOMA staff visits to the artist’s foundation, and will offer a record of the creation of mock-ups and conservation treatments of the artist’s works. A study of the materials Rauschenberg used to create his art and ephemera related to his art works will also be featured on the website. The Online Scholarly Catalogue is scheduled to launch in summer 2013, resulting in SFMOMA’s first scholarly publication online. The material presented in the Online Catalogue will surely captivate scholars, professionals, experts and a lay audience who all share an interest in Robert Rauschenberg’s oeuvre.

This presentation will focus on several Rauschenberg works, including two from the early 1950’s: Untitled (glossy black painting) and White Painting (three panel), along with Collection, a 1954 combine painting. Each of these works presents conservation, preservation and installation challenges, and each work was closely studied during the course of the Online Scholarly Catalogue project.

Speakers
PD

Paula De Cristofaro

Paintings Conservator, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Paula De Cristofaro has worked in the SFMOMA Conservation Department since 1990. Prior to joining the staff at SFMOMA, she worked at the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. and at the Cleveland Museum of Art in Cleveland Ohio. She completed the Conservation Training Program at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London and was an Advanced Intern in Conservation at the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University. Paula was awarded the Rome Prize in... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 3:00pm - 3:20pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:00pm

(Contemporary Art Session 2) Installing Mauricio Cattelan's ALL: a retrospective at the Guggenheim Museum
Strung-up, dangling, inverted, at a glance random but in fact painstakingly composed. The goal was to create a new installation that would fill the rotunda with the life’s work of Italian artist Maurizio Cattelan. Certainly the Guggenheim had experience filling the void with newly fabricated, site-specific works but never before had a multitudinous collection of diverse, original artwork been brought together and hung from the rotunda skylight at the Guggenheim Museum. This was the challenge the Guggenheim team faced when standing in front of the working model for All in a studio in Milan with the artist and the Cattelan Archive. What was initially a conservator’s nightmare and a huge challenge for the fabrication, mountmaking, design and registrar departments, became, after careful planning and meticulous execution, a one-of-a-kind and unforgettable exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum.
From a conservation perspective, examining and establishing object condition as well as developing mounting strategies for loans to be included in ALL was of the utmost importance for the safety of the artwork and museum visitors. Guggenheim Conservation and Mountmaking traveled to perform on-site assessments of many objects included in the exhibit. During these visits the works were carefully examined to determine condition and structural integrity. Each object was studied and compared to the working model to determine if the proposed hanging method was feasible or needed to be modified.
Maurizio Cattelan’s work does not fall discretely into one category or medium. ALL included photographs, paintings, works on paper, taxidermy, textiles and sculptural works in marble, metal and wax. After a survey of the objects in the exhibit was complete and conservation needs identified, conservators of varying disciplines from outside the museum were enlisted to share their expertise and treat pieces under the guidance of the artist, the Cattelan Archive and Guggenheim conservation staff.
Fabrication, exhibition design, conservation and art services and preparation departments, in consultation with the company GMS Engineering, carefully thought out the mechanics of cautiously lifting All. After several discussions with Cattelan regarding appearance, a design was approved. Using the working model of All as a guide, a three-dimensional computer model was made. Cables were plotted top to bottom to ensure that each piece was suspended at a safe distance from surrounding artworks, and that cables for objects placed lower in the composition had a clear path to the hanging structure. Each connection from truss to object was tested, and each component was weighed to guarantee that the total weight would not compromise the structural ribs of the skylight at the museum.
As a result of meticulous planning, the installation process was seamless. With cables set, mounts in place and hanging hardware ready, each object was carefully lifted and positioned on the hanging cables. Conservation, GMS Engineering and the Cattelan Archive carefully inspected the condition and stability of each work before the piece was lifted out of reach. One month later, a suspended kaleidoscope of Cattelan’s life work welcomed the public as they entered the Guggenheim Museum.

Speakers
NO

Nathan Otterson

Senior Conservator, Objects, Solomon R Guggenheim Museum
Nathan Otterson returned to the Guggenheim in 2005. He focuses on scientific documentation and treatment of the Guggenheim Museum’s modern and contemporary sculpture collection. Most recently he has concentrated on the treatment of works by Matthew Barney, Joseph Beuys, Maurizio Cattelan, Amedeo Modigliani, and Alexander Calder. He is currently researching Calder red paints from the 1950s, the mounting methods and deterioration of Richard Serra... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 3:00pm - 3:20pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

3:30pm

Exhibit Hall Break
AIC’s 41st Annual Meeting features the largest U.S. gathering of suppliers in the conservation field. Mingle with exhibitors and discover new treatments and business solutions. For the current list of exhibitors, see inside back cover. Posters on a range of conservation topics also will be on view in the Exhibit Hall, with an author question-and-answer session.

Friday May 31, 2013 3:30pm - 4:00pm
JW Marriott Griffin Hall 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

(Contemporary Art Session 1) Automating Classification of Historic Photographic Paper from Surface Texture Images
Digital imaging and signal processing technologies offer opportunities for conservators and affiliated researchers to answer long vexing questions in new and potentially more quantitative ways. This paper will present a collaborative project to systematically and semi-automatically characterize the surface texture of historic photographic papers.
Surface texture is a vital attribute defining the appearance of a photographic print. Texture impacts tonal range, rendering of detail, reflectance and conveys subtle, qualitative information about the aesthetic intent of a photographer. During the 20th century, manufacturers created a large diversity of specialized textures. Identification of these textures yields important information about the origin of a photographic print, including the date and the region of manufacture.
A texture library of photographic papers containing over 2,000 identified surfaces has been assembled using a simple system for capturing photomicrographs. Lacking a query and retrieval mechanism, this library has only the most basic application for the identification of unknown textures. Addressing this deficit, practical applications are being tested as part of The Museum of Modern Art’s project to characterize photographs from its Thomas Walther collection (funded in part by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation).
Paper texture is being documented by reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) and raking light. RTI and raking light data have been collected on a microscopic scale for dozens of samples, including (1) 80 samples about 30% of which have known matches and (2) 90 samples in 3 sets of 30: (a) 10 texture samples from different locations on one piece of paper, (b) 10 texture samples from different pieces of paper taken from the same manufacturer’s package, and (c) 10 texture samples from the same manufacturer, manufactured to the same specifications and in the same time period but from different manufacturer packages.
Using these data, automatic classification procedures have been developed through a collaborative competition by teams at different universities. Each team used a different strategy for deriving the most accurate and efficient algorithm for matching texture images from an unknown sample to a short list of identified references with similar textures gleaned from the library of known textures. The results of this competition will be discussed with a summary of remaining challenges.
The classification procedures generally divide into two parts: Feature vector extraction from the images followed by similarity evaluation of the feature vectors. For these tasks many algorithms are plausible with strengths and weaknesses dependent on the peculiarities of materials being analyzed. For example Fourier, wavelet, and multi-fractal analysis may have greater or lesser success on certain types of surfaces based on the physical characteristics, including isotropy and roughness, of the sample. The performance of the better schemes will be summarized in the presentation.
The techniques developed through the challenge may have applications for rapidly and inexpensively assembling texture libraries of other photographic papers, such as inkjet papers, and of other materials such as textiles and painted surfaces and for accessing these texture collections through database query and retrieval methods.

Speakers
avatar for Paul Messier

Paul Messier

Head, Lens Media Lab, Yale Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Paul Messier is the head of the Lens Media Lab at Yale University's Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage. the LML is devoted to materials-based research on the 20th century photographic print.


Friday May 31, 2013 4:00pm - 4:20pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:00pm

(Contemporary Art Session 2) Cow guts. The conservation of two contemporary artworks by Doris Salcedo and by Ursula van Rydingsvard
In recent years, two artworks were treated at the studio of Contemporary Conservation in New York City, which were both reflective of challenges conservators for contemporary art are facing:

Both contain inner tissue of the cow: bladder and gut. Both intestines were stretched and sewn to the sculptures' bodies while still wet and elastic; both showed more than desired shrinkage after they dried.

In the first case, the focus was to develop a method of conservation to offer an alternative to the artist's recommendation of replacement. In the second case, however, the artist approached us with questions about aging reactions and treatment solutions for an artwork still in progress.

The artwork, Atrabiliarios (1997), by Columbian artist Doris Salcedo, came to the studio in poor condition after a long period of installation in an uncontrolled climate. Since many works from the same series have shown extensive shrinkage of the cow bladders, the artist had already developed a maintenance concept, which consists mainly of the replacement of cow bladders when shrinkage has progressed to an unacceptable degree determined by the artist. This would include torn edges, losses and layer separation. The method of exchanging original with new material, although as a technique quite common in contemporary art, was challenged by our studio and a suitable alternative was researched extensively. The Decision-Making Model (1997/99, Foundation for the Conservation of Modern Art) was used to determine and evaluate a method that would sustain the artworks integrity. The artist was contacted and she provided us with detailed instructions about her “conservation procedure”; Professionals from related fields and conservators with different areas of expertise (as an example, taxidermists and conservators from The American Museum of Natural History) were contacted.

The original cow bladders in Atrabiliarios were sustained and the artwork was re-installed in a climate-controlled environment. The developed conservation method of the cow bladder will be explained step by step and discussed.

For the second artwork “still in the making”, Ursula van Rydingsvard, a New York City based artist, contacted our studio with a simple question: how can one preserve cow guts in a way that they will not shrink and tear?

Two conservators from Contemporary Conservation visited the artist's studio, where her questions and artistic aims were presented and explained in great detail. This is an important step, as it is our goal to support her creative process without influencing her artistic ideas with aspects of conservation.

The discussion led to contacting a number of professionals. Of particular interest was the preparation of seal intestines for the making of raincoats used in Inuit Culture.

Various approaches were developed and tests were initiated, experimenting with fresh cow stomachs from a local food supplier. Although first results provide directions, the investigations are still ongoing. The approach and results, maybe even the artwork by Ursula von Rydingsvard, will be presentable in the talk.

In conclusion, the challenges presented in the preservation of an already existing artwork and of a work in progress will be investigated and discussed. The complex assignment of both, the conservators and the artists, imply many aspects of careful assessment and step-by-step evaluation in each case.

Speakers
MO

Mareike Opena

Assistant Conservator, Contemporary Conservation Ltd.


Friday May 31, 2013 4:00pm - 4:20pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:20pm

(Contemporary Art Session 1) When Conservation Means Stapling: Touring an Unsupported, Unglazed, 9ft x 21ft, oil paint stick on Paper to Three Venues
The loan of traditionally hinged, matted and framed works of art on paper is guided by well established protocols for safe shipping, handling and display in exhibitions both nationally and internationally. Can and should these standards be enforced when considering the loan of contemporary works on paper requiring non standard installation and display requirements? Can the conservator marry preservation and aesthetic integrity while fulfilling artist and institution expectations?
In 2009 the Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) received a request for loan of an oversize work on paper by the American artist Richard Serra. “Untitled, 1974” is an oil paint stick on paper measuring 9 ft by 21 ft installed. The drawing is composed of two horizontal sheets each 5 ft x 21 ft which are overlapped, the bottom sheet overlapping the top sheet. It was originally installed directly on the wall using staples.
From the beginning the loan request was enthusiastically supported, but no one was expecting the drawing to be in exhibitable condition given its age (38 years), the use of oil paint stick media, and its 30 year rolled storage condition. Documentation was found to be incomplete and installation details missing. The sheer size of the work and its installation configuration presented immediate logistical problems. When the drawing was found to be in acceptable condition, the search for an installation methodology that would insure safe and expedient installation of the artwork at three venues and which met both the artists and conservators specifications became paramount and ended up defining the parameters of the loan.
This presentation will highlight major conservation issues and unique problems encountered during the process of examination, preparation and installation of the drawing. In particular the decision to lift the drawing by hand to the wall and install with staples is discussed and illustrated with visual documentation taken on site at the three venues. Methods for problem solving such as the use of full size mockups are outlined. The success of the loan parameters used is summarized.

Speakers
avatar for Joan Weir

Joan Weir

Conservator – Works on Paper, Art Gallery of Ontario


Friday May 31, 2013 4:20pm - 4:40pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:20pm

(Contemporary Art Session 2) Vibration Control During Museum Construction Projects
Vibrations caused by heavy construction at museums are potentially harmful to museum buildings and artwork. Protection of these objects calls for a reliable method of vibration control during construction projects. In this presentation, background information will be provided on vibrations and their effects on humans, buildings, and artwork. Then, conservative limits for protection of buildings and artwork from damage from vibrations during construction will be recommended. Research and examples will be cited that show: 1) most works of art in good condition have damage thresholds that are much higher than the limits recommended for construction vibrations; 2) vibrations to which art objects are exposed during transit are often much higher than the limits recommended for construction vibrations, without damage; 3) similar limits have been used during several previous museum construction projects, without damage; 4) humans can perceive much lower levels of vibration than the recommended limits, so it should be anticipated that vibrations at these levels will be noticeable to building occupants even though they are not damaging; and 5) even ambient (day-to-day background) vibrations in museums can approach the recommended limits, which reinforces the conservative nature of the limits.

The research and the authors’ experience show that the greatest risks for damage to art objects during construction projects are from walking of unrestrained light objects on smooth surfaces; resonance of objects that have natural frequencies similar to steady-state construction vibrations like sheet pile driving; and vibratory motion of extremely fragile objects or those with serious pre-existing weaknesses. Measures should be taken to protect against these unique risks.

Vibration control during museum construction projects has often been based on judgment and qualitative analysis. This presentation will outline a scientific methodology, based on available research and state-of-the-art technology, to protect the museum while not unduly constraining, encumbering or slowing the construction process. The key steps include preconstruction testing, selection of appropriate vibration criteria, planning for preconstruction collections movement, development of a project-specific vibration control specification, field trials and condition surveys, construction-phase vibration monitoring along predetermined safe lines, and stringent protocols should near-limit or over-limit events occur. The methodology has proven successful in recent construction projects at leading U.S. museums and is offered for the benefit of other museums undertaking similar work.

Two examples of large-scale implementation of the methodology will be described: the first involving three major construction projects at The Art Institute of Chicago from 2005 to 2009, and the second being the expansion of the Saint Louis Art Museum from 2009 to date. Both projects involved extensive preconstruction testing, vibration control development, and construction-phase vibration monitoring systems.

Speakers
AJ

Arne Johnson

Structural Engineer, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.


Friday May 31, 2013 4:20pm - 4:40pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:40pm

(Contemporary Art Session 1) Artist materials collection at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
The artist materials collection at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art is a key component of the conservation department’s mission to engage and interact with contemporary artists and their creations.

More than solely a collection of 20th and 21st century materials, this collection contextualizes contemporary art practice and celebrates the conservation department’s ongoing, active relationship with artists.

Containing more than 300 objects, the ever-growing collection includes a diverse range of materials, examples of which include swatches of silk custom-dyed by Robert Rauschenberg to replace a deteriorated silk component on his combine work, photographs and documents from the Richard Avedon studio describing mounting and materials used for prints in the series, In the American West, DeFeo’s painting trowel, original materials used in the fabrication of Eva Hesse’s molded fiberglass sculptures, a vintage camera provided by Nam June Paik relating to a work in the collection nd mock-ups by Richard Tuttle to test mounting techniques in advance of his retrospective.

This presentation will describe the artist materials collection and how it supports collaborative activity with artists, which is at the very heart of contemporary art conservation. The collection is being envisioned as a dynamic and accessible resource in the SFMOMA’s building expansion, scheduled to open in 2016.

Speakers
TA

Theresa Andrews

Conservator of Photographs, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Theresa Andrews is the Conservator of Photographs at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and has been at SFMOMA since 1998. She holds an MA and Certificate of Advanced Study in Conservation from the Buffalo State Art Conservation Department, SUNY, 1991. She audited the Photographic Materials Block taught by Debbie Hess Norris at the University of Delaware/Winterthur Art Conservation Program in spring, 1991. Her responsibilities at SFMOMA... Read More →
MB

michelle barger

Deputy Head of Conservation, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
PD

Paula De Cristofaro

Paintings Conservator, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Paula De Cristofaro has worked in the SFMOMA Conservation Department since 1990. Prior to joining the staff at SFMOMA, she worked at the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. and at the Cleveland Museum of Art in Cleveland Ohio. She completed the Conservation Training Program at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London and was an Advanced Intern in Conservation at the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University. Paula was awarded the Rome Prize in... Read More →
avatar for Martina Haidvogl

Martina Haidvogl

Associate Media Conservator, SFMOMA
Martina Haidvogl is the Associate Media Conservator at SFMOMA, where she has piloted documentation and preservation initiatives for the Media Arts collection since 2011. Martina has lectured and published internationally on media conservation and its implications for museum collections, as well as conservation strategies for audio artworks by Dieter Roth, the subject of her master's thesis. She studied conservation and restoration at the... Read More →
AH

Amanda Hunter Johnson

Associate Paper Conservator, SFMOMA
JS

Jill Sterrett

Head of Conservation and Collections, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
Jill Sterrett has been the Director of Collections at the San Francisco Museum of Modern since 2001. In this role, she oversees five allied departments in a museum structure that is designed to foster working sites of collaboration serving the museum’s programs and its collection. Jill has been on staff at SFMOMA for the last 25 years, first as Paper Conservator (1990-2000) and then Head of Conservation (2000-2001). She has also worked at... Read More →


Friday May 31, 2013 4:40pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

4:40pm

(Contemporary Art Session 2) Film: Conserving Calder's Circus
Eleonora Nagy, Conservator of Three-Dimensional Works of Art, Whitney Museum of Art; Jonathan Bogarín, Producer, El Tigre Productions; Elan Bogarín, Producer, El Tigre Productions

Friday May 31, 2013 4:40pm - 5:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:00pm

5:00pm

5:30pm

Emerging Conservation Professionals Network
Join us for our annual informational meeting to learn about ECPN and meet the committee members and others in our network. This is a chance to hear about some of ECPN’s activities and to be included in the discussion about ongoing and future initiatives, including our webinar series, our liaisons program and the mentoring program. All are welcome!

Friday May 31, 2013 5:30pm - 6:30pm
JW Marriott Meeting Rooms 201-203 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

5:30pm

Collection Care Network Reception
Friday May 31, 2013 5:30pm - 7:30pm
"End Zone" of the High Velocity Sports Bar 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:00pm

(Paintings) Panel Discussion: Current Challenges and Opportunities in Paintings Conservation
Please join us for a lively, introspective, and forward-thinking discussion of both the problems facing our field and the untapped resources that are available on the horizon. This session aims to identify some of our greatest challenges and achievable goals with respect to treatment, research, documentation, preventive care, education & training, funding, and the dissemination of information.

Moderators
TD

Tiarna Doherty

Chief of Conservation, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Tiarna became Chief of Conservation at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in 2011. Previously, Tiarna worked for nine years as a paintings conservator at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles. She holds a bachelor’s degree in both chemistry and art history from Tufts University, and a master’s degree in painting conservation from the Winterthur/University of Delaware art conservation program. Tiarna is a Directory Board member of the... Read More →

Speakers
avatar for Rustin Levenson

Rustin Levenson

Conservation Director, ArtCareMiami
B.A. Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA Diploma in Paintings Conservation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA Rustin has worked on the painting conservation staff of the Fogg Museum (1969-1973), the Canadian Conservation Institute (1973-1974); The National Gallery of Canada (1974-1977); and The Metropolitan Museum of Art (1977-1980). Since 1980 she has been President of Rustin Levenson Art Conservation Associates, with studios in New York, NY and... Read More →
avatar for Alan Phenix

Alan Phenix

Scientist, Getty Conservation Institute
Alan Phenix is a paintings conservator, conservation educator and conservation scientist. He is presently 'Scientist' at the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, working partly for the Collections Research Laboratory (CRL) and partly for the Modern & Contemporary Art Research group. His work concerns mainly the analysis of art materials and the study of artists' technique.
RP

Robert Proctor

Director/Painting Conservator, Whitten & Proctor Fine Art Conservation
Robert G. Proctor Jr. is a painting conservator in Houston, Texas. He has worked on numerous public murals and has developed a variety of structural techniques for minimal intervention. He teaches about varnishes and thread-by-thread tear re-weaving at U.S. conservation programs and regional groups in Europe and South America.
avatar for Joyce Hill Stoner

Joyce Hill Stoner

Professor, Winterthur/UD


Friday May 31, 2013 6:00pm - 7:30pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom H-J 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:30pm

Architecture Specialty Group Dinner/Reception


Friday May 31, 2013 6:30pm - 9:00pm
Rathskellar Restaurant 401 E Michigan St Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:30pm

Book and Paper Group Reception
$18 book and paper Group members, $12 book and paper Group Student members, $28 book and paper Group-BPG members

Sponsors
avatar for Hollinger Metal Edge

Hollinger Metal Edge

Hollinger Metal Edge, Inc. has been the leading supplier of archival storage products for Conservators, Museums, Government and Institutional Archives, Historical Societies, Libraries, Universities, Galleries and Private Collectors for over 65 years. Famous for The Hollinger Box – the metal edged gray document cases that fill the shelves of thousands of organizations, we offer a wide variety of box styles made with various appropriate materials... Read More →
avatar for Preservation Technologies

Preservation Technologies

Preservation Technologies, L.P. provides deacidification products and services for libraries, archives, and consumers worldwide. From treating the valuable books and documents of the world’s leading research libraries to preserving family memorabilia and stamp collections, our patented products are manufactured with the same level of care for the object, user, and environment.



Friday May 31, 2013 6:30pm - 9:00pm
Indiana State Library 315 W Ohio St  Indianapolis, IN 46204

6:30pm

Textiles + Wooden Artifacts Group Dinner


Friday May 31, 2013 6:30pm - 9:30pm
Adobo Grill 110 E Washington St  Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:00pm

Graduate Program Reunion: Buffalo State College
Friday May 31, 2013 8:00pm - 10:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

8:00pm

8:00pm

Graduate Program Reunion: Winterthur/University of Delaware
Friday May 31, 2013 8:00pm - 10:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204
 
Saturday, June 1
 

7:30am

AIC Member Business Meeting
Join your colleagues for breakfast while attending the AIC Member Business Meeting. Learn more about the current state of our organization and leadership plans to capitalize on our strengths. Continental breakfast will be provided.

The following awards will be presented:

Special Recognition for Allied Professionals
Steven Puglia

Publications Award
Gerhard Banik
Irene Brückle

President’s Award
Catharine Hawks

Saturday June 1, 2013 7:30am - 9:45am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:45am

(Architecture) Ethics and Standards: Comparing the Practices of Architectural Conservation and Historic (Architecture)
The historic architect practicing in the American context learns the Secretary of the Interior’s canon: the Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, associated Guidelines, and Preservation Briefs. The American conservator follows the AIC’s Code of Ethics and Guidance for Practice.

Conservation ethics imply a high standard of practice; the historic architect has no official criteria in that regard. However, architects do benefit from the Department of the Interior’s continuing effort to explain and update their Standards. The National Park Service’s Technical Preservation Services has specific guidelines for solving programmatic issues such as accessibility, as well as updated publications on how to repair historic masonry and design compatible additions to historic buildings.

This paper will first of all outline those aspects of the AIC’s ethics that are not implicit in practice criteria for historic architects. Secondly, the paper will outline the types of Standards that exist for historic architecture, describe how they come to bear in a regulatory context, and present several examples of the application of those Standards to projects, systems, materials, and finishes in assessing conditions and specifying treatments for historic properties.

These different approaches, ethics and standards, apply for conservators and architects who work side by side on the same buildings and materials. Joint study of these different approaches can improve practice in both professions and lead to better treatment of cultural property.

Speakers
PH

Peyton Hall

Managing Principal, Historic Resources Group, LLC


Saturday June 1, 2013 9:45am - 10:00am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:45am

(Research and Technical Studies) The Never-Ending Story of Conservation: New Technologies- New Challenges
Contemporary works of art often pose particular practical and ethical concerns when they are made with techniques and materials others than those used traditionally by artists. Using objects in ways not intended may shorten their service life. Moreover, the use of new techniques since some years ago, such as 3D rapid prototyping, selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposit modelling (FDM), pose dilemmas to conservators and curators who have to decide whether damaged objects made with these techniques should be restored or remade.

Two case studies will be presented to illustrate these dilemmas and possible solutions. ‘Chandeliers’, an installation by the Dutch artist Madelene Berkhemer is one of the cases; the other is a vase by Marcel Wanders, a Dutch designer. Conservators should consider the role and context of an object being treated; in the case of contemporary works of art and design, this includes the artist’s and designer’s views on the object and how he or she intended it to look and to behave.

The artist Madeleine Berkhemer lives and works in Rotterdam. She creates erotically charged work. Her sculptures, drawings and performances are defined by the heterogeneity of their materials and styles. Her work is an investigation of the dimensions of time and space and a radical examination of social and economic conditions. The artist installations include nylon stockings tied around objects and the stress imparted in the stockings by this wrapping might accelerate the ageing of the work of art. Moreover, the environment in which the installation is displayed affects the life span of the object. To prolong the life of these works of art, a research project to investigate possible consolidation treatments has been set up at RCE, in close collaboration with the artist herself.

Nowadays many polyamide (nylon) objects can be designed and created using 3D rapid prototyping. Jewellery, vases and other design objects made by these rapid prototyping techniques, such as the snotty vases of Marcel Wanders, are nowadays highly appreciated collectibles. Conservation treatments for 3D rapid prototyping nylon objects are unknown and, therefore, the cleaning and repair of the broken parts of a snotty vase by Marcel Wanders showed to be a challenge.

The question of whether it is more cost effective to invest time in researching the conservation of these objects or to have them remade or restored using 3D techniques is possed.
At RCE, investigations have been made to observe the behaviour of some 3D rapid prototyped nylon objects under the influence of changes in light, %RH and temperature in order to set up guidelines for care and preventive conservation. Results will be presented at the conference.

Speakers
AL

Anna Laganá

RCE (Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands)
TV

Thea van Oosten

RCE (Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands)


Saturday June 1, 2013 9:45am - 10:15am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:45am

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) Challenges and Compromise: Preserving the Miller House (Textiles)

In 2009 the Indianapolis Museum of Art acquired the Miller House and Garden, an important mid-century modern residence in Columbus, IN. The house and garden were designed collaboratively by architect Eero Saarinen, interior designer and architect Alexander Girard and landscape architect Dan Kiley, at a time when each was at the height of their creative output. The house features flowing open spaces filled with light, achieved through a system of skylights, and expansive windows that integrate the surrounding landscape with the interior of the house. J. Irwin Miller, a successful industrialist, his wife Xenia, and their five children occupied the house from the time it was completed in 1957 until Mrs. Miller’s death in 2008. During this 50 year period the Millers acquired many significant works of art, including Monet’s Waterlilies, pieces by Picasso, Matisse, Bonnard, Chagall and others, but remained true to the modernist visions of Saarinen, Kiley and Girard in maintaining the house. This paper will present an overview of Girard’s use of textiles in the house, our understanding of the evolution of these textiles over time, aspects of preparing the house for public access, decision making around use and interpretation, and will examine inherent characteristics of the house and their impact on preservation. Limited resources and the short time line between acquisition of the house and its opening to the public in the spring of 2011 have necessitated a phased approach to conservation and the implementation of preventive practices. These factors will also be discussed while sharing the story of our care of the house to date, and plans for expanding this care into the future.


Speakers
KK

Kathleen Kiefer

Senior Conservator of Textiles, Indianapolis Museum of Art


Saturday June 1, 2013 9:45am - 10:15am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:45am

(Book and Paper) Tips Session: Contemporary Treatment Tips and Techniques
Join members of the Book and Paper Group (BPG) and guests from all specialty groups at an engaging and informative Tips Session highlighting contemporary practical tips, tricks, and discoveries related to book and paper conservation including treatment, housings, supplies, disaster response, exhibitions, management, and current trends. In addition to Q&A there will be an open forum for informal announcements, insights, and queries from the audience. 

Moderators
avatar for Sarah Reidell

Sarah Reidell

Margy Meyerson Head of Conservation, University of Pennsylvania Libraries
Sarah Reidell is the Margy Meyerson Head of Conservation in the Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts at the University of Pennsylvania Libraries. Before coming to the Penn Libraries, she was Associate Conservator for Rare Books and Paper at the New York Public Library and Conservator for Special Collections in the Harvard University Library. Sarah holds an MLIS/CAS in Conservation and Preservation of Library and... Read More →

Saturday June 1, 2013 9:45am - 11:00am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

9:45am

(Discussion Session) Engaging with Allied Fields: Teaching Conservation in Allied Academic Departments and Degree Programs
AIC and the conservation community are beginning to critically examine the values that drive our profession, as well as how we communicate the ethics, goals, and key concepts which form the core of modern conservation practice. Many practicing conservators teach and/or lecture for undergraduate and graduate programs in allied career tracks such as archaeology, art history, information and library science, museum studies, and the sciences. In most cases, the overarching aim is to introduce students to the field of conservation. However, contemporary conservation is a diverse and complex field, and it can be challenging to communicate relevant information in one term or, in the case of a guest lecture, a single class period. This interactive session critically examines the goals and methodology of teaching conservation information to non-conservation students, with the intention of beginning a collaborative, cross-disciplinary dialogue that will result in both theoretical and practical resources for conservators teaching in university settings.

The objectives of this session are to:

1) examine conservators’ shared pedagogical mission
2) explore how conservators interpret/communicate key values in class settings
3) assist teaching conservators with course content development and teaching strategies
4) launch a continuing dialogue about the goals of teaching, as well as its impact and efficacy

The session will utilize a non-traditional presentation format (a lightning round) as well as a guided, audience-participatory discussion. Empirical data from a survey on conservation and teaching will also be presented. In order to feature a variety of viewpoints and strategies, and to provide context and inspiration for the discussion, selected speakers who teach in a variety of academic departments will be solicited for the lightning round (should this session be accepted). Desired speakers include: Cathleen Baker, Sanchita Balachandran, Suzanne Davis, Ian McClure, Richard McCoy, Karen Pavelka, Gregory Smith, Reneé Stein, Eric Uffelman, and Emily Williams.

To provide a foundation for understanding and examining current trends in teaching and learning about conservation at the university level, the session chairs will present data from an online survey conducted in advance of the session. In brief, the goals of the survey are to learn how many conservators currently teach in allied programs, in what departments or settings they teach, and what they feel is most important to communicate to students. The resulting data will be used to shape questions for the discussion portion of the session. The audience-participatory discussion will comprise at least one third of the 90 minute session time and is designed to engage all session attendees in a conversation about shared goals when teaching students in allied career tracks, the desired impact of such teaching, and successful teaching strategies.

The session chairs plan to capture the thoughts and ideas generated by this session and make these available to a wider audience. Publication venues for this product could be an AIC blog post or a page otherwise available through the AIC website. The results of this session could also inform a white paper for the Education and Training Committee on teaching conservation to non-conservators at the university level.

Speakers
avatar for Suzanne Davis

Suzanne Davis

Head of Conservation, Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, Univ. of Michigan
Suzanne Davis is an associate curator and the head of conservation at the University of Michigan's Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. Prior to joining the Museum in 2001, she was a conservator for the Underwater Archaeology Branch of the Naval Historical Center in Washington, D.C. She is a fellow of the AIC and holds graduate degrees in art history and conservation from the Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. Her... Read More →
EW

Emily Williams

Conservator of Archaeological Materials, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Conservator of Archaeological Materials at the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation 1995 to present. I have worked at museums and sites in England, Turkey, Australia, Egypt, Bermuda, Syria, Belgium and Iraq. Currently pursuing a PhD through the University of Leicester's School of Archaeology and Ancient History.


Saturday June 1, 2013 9:45am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott Meeting Room 101-102 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:00am

(Electronic Media) FUTURE, or how to live Forever
Net artist Igor Stromajer started to delete all of his net artworks in 2010. Over a period of 37 days he deleted one of his artworks each day, from the conviction that “if one can create art, one can also delete it. Memory is there to deceive”. Other artists like Constant Dullaart and Robert Sakrowski are giving people guidelines on how best to document their, or other people’s, net artworks. Their approach of subjective documenting, and straightforward collecting of meta data is aimed at the participation and exchange of the collected documentation by all parties interested in preservation of Internet based artworks. At the same time more and more net artists are translating their online artwork into objects, sculptures and installations, experimenting with ways to present and document their work for future generations.

In the last decade a discussion on how to preserve net art for the future is also starting to emerge in museums for contemporary art. This growing attention is wonderful and more than justified, but most methods still depart from the ‘final’ project, albeit static, variable or networked. What has been given little attention is the ways these works are made (produced) or documented by artists. In this paper I will argue that the way artists make, use and present their documentation, from the work in progress to the final presentation, can give a lot of information about the work, which is of vital importance for the preservation or recreation of a work. By analyzing artists’ documentation methods and comparing these to the information that is asked for in traditional museum documentation models showed that specific and inherent qualities of the artworks are not taken into account in the models up till now. For example, closer analysis of Blast Theory’s creative processes indicated that integral information might get lost when using standard questionnaires or applying emulation methods that transfer the game-play to new platforms.

In this paper I will trace and map out the consequences for conservation by analysing the multiplayer game Naked on Pluto, a work that is based on process and relies on a commercial and restricted online platform; Facebook. Although this is a rather extreme case study, because there is still little analytical reflection on artworks that proliferate on commercial social media platforms let alone interest of museums for presentation or acquisition of these works, I will show that this practice is gaining attention with artists and thus can be regarded as paradigmatic for contemporary artworks. When it comes to born-digital artworks, conservation has missed the ability to understand the specific and large-scale changes that computational culture has brought about. Most practices still depart from the traditional object oriented way of dealing with the artwork and fail to understand computing as inherently cultural, social, networked and process based. I argue for a conservation practice that departs from the digitally native and adopts similar strategies. Instead of working towards an object-oriented approach of fixation I propose to focus on documenting the process and experience of a work, i.e. keeping knowledge and memory alive but accepting a loss in history.

Speakers
AD

annet dekker

PhD researcher, Goldsmiths University of London
Annet Dekker is an independent researcher and curator. She is currently Researcher Digital Preservation at Tate, London, Post-doc Research Fellow at London South Bank University / The Photographers Gallery, and core tutor at Piet Zwart Institute, Rotterdam (Master Media Design and Communication, Networked Media and Lens-Based Media). Previously she worked as Web curator for SKOR (Foundation for Art and Public Domain, 2010–12), was programme... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:00am - 10:30am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:00am

(Paintings) Richard Caton Woodville: In Palette and Process
Eric Gordon, Head of paintings Conservation, The Walters Art Museum; and Gwen Manthey, National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow, The Chrysler Museum of Art

Richard Caton Woodville created what became some of the most iconic images of antebellum America while working from abroad. His early education in Baltimore coupled with his studies at the Düsseldorf Academy instilled in him a fairly traditional, conservative painting methodology. By identifying his painting materials and the process involved in creating his compositions, we can appreciate how he transformed his vision of American life onto canvas.

Speakers
EG

Eric Gordon

Head of Painting Conservation, The Walters Art Museum
Eric Gordon has been a painting conservator at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore since 1985 and Head of Painting Conservation since 1996. He graduated from the New York University conservation program and interned at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the Intermuseum Conservation Laboratory in Oberlin, Ohio and at ICCROM/Rome. He worked at the Intermuseum Conservation Laboratory, The Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto and the... Read More →
avatar for Gwen B. Manthey

Gwen B. Manthey

Assistant Conservator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Gwen Manthey is Assistant Conservator of Paintings at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:00am - 10:30am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:10am

(Architecture) The Emperor’s New Clothes? Establishing National Standards for Masonry Cleaning
Large scale cleaning of masonry buildings is a common enough occurrence. But model protocols to characterize the substrates and soiling of facades are hard to find. Few countries seem to have adopted standardized codes of practice for masonry cleaning and even fewer have adequate published guidance on what can be a very complicated set of cleaning procedures for different materials and their sensitivities.
The author will discuss the context within which national cleaning standards are set and discuss the contractual, economic, technical and scientific reasons why cleaning procedures are implemented by architects and masonry contractors rather than by architectural conservators.

Speakers
JA

John A. Fidler

President & Chief Technical Officer, John Fidler Preservation Technology Inc
British-licensed architect with two postgratuate degrees in building conservation and over 36 years award-winning experience specializing in the conservation of historic buildings, ancient monuments and archaeological sites. Professional Associate of AIC; Fellow of the RICS, Society of Antiquaries, International Institute for Conservation and of the Association for Preservation Technology. From 2012 running my own international consultancy... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:10am - 10:35am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:15am

(Research and Technical Studies) Unilateral NMR and Multivariate Analysis: A Novel Non-Invasive Characterization Method for Artifacts of Modern Synthetic Resin Materials
During the past decades conservators in museums have been increasingly challenged by objects made of modern synthetic resin materials. Such objects are vulnerable towards deterioration and degradation, which in part may be ascribed to their construction from commercial products not designed to last forever. The lifetime of modern synthetic resin materials varies and it is generally considered to be no longer than about 30 years, after which defects such as discoloration, stickiness, and cracking can be observed. A natural first step in the conservation of these objects is the identification of their composition and condition. The most widely used technique for these purposes is Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). IR methods generally require the removal of a sample or in the case of attenuated total reflectance (ATR), it only provides information about the composition on surface of the object, which may not be adequate when understanding the degradation underneath the surface is equally important.
Unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers the possibility of non-invasive in situ analysis of a wide range of materials including modern synthetic resins. With the Profile NMR MOUSE®, it is possible to obtain depth profiles of materials and thereby obtain information on the composition and molecular mobility at different depths from the surface of the object. Transverse relaxation decay of protons in organic materials can be measured using the so-called Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) NMR experiments where the time constant of the signal decay reflects molecular size and mobility. Such information is typically extracted by exponential fitting of the decay. The reliability of such procedures highly depends on the achievable signal-to-noise ratio and may be impractical when handling large datasets. Moreover, the decays are intrinsically multiexponential, and they must be approximated by a bi- or triexponential model function. Consequently, the results depend on the selected model function and are not always comparable. Here we demonstrate how multivariate data analysis of the relaxation decays can be used to provide a fast overview of large, potentially noisy, datasets with an unambiguous, model-free approach. One aim of the study is to explore the capability of principal component analysis (PCA) to discriminate data in terms of types of materials and molecular mobility. The method allows the analysis of large datasets obtained through mapping of large artifacts in all three dimensions to monitor structural changes and deterioration or obtained through the establishment of a reference database for conservation studies and analysis.


Cindie Kehlet1, Eleonora Del Federico1, Niels Chr. Nielsen2, Jens Dittmer3, Hiba Schahbaz1, Amelia Catalano1

1 Department of Mathematics and Science, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York, US.
2 Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), University of Aarhus, Denmark.
3 Institut des Molecules et des Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Université du Maine, Le Mans, France.

Speakers
ED

Eleonora Del Federico

Professor of Chemistry, Pratt Institute
Roman Wall Paintings and mosaics/ Pompeii/Herculaneum | Non-invasive, in-situ analysis of works of art | Pigment/binder interactions | Magnetic Resonance
CK

Cindie Kehlet

Associate Professor, Pratt Institute


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:15am - 10:45am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:15am

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) Slipcovers: Old and New

The use of slipcovers has been documented in the United States as early as 1647 and even the young George Washington, before becoming the first American president, ordered ‘loose covers’ for furniture in his newly inherited home at Mount Vernon. The worldwide appeal of slipcovers has always been one of comfort, style and function. Used in a variety of ways, slipcovers could be camouflage for worn and stained upholstery fabric. Or they could be used to protect very ornate and luxurious textiles, the outer cover removed only for important visitors. Because upholstered furniture pieces were often the dominant decorative components in a room, slipcovers also provided a relatively quick and affordable change in taste or an alternative to a more expensive fixed upholstery treatment. This fact is still true today and is the reason that slipcovers are more popular than ever.

This paper will present the historical use of slipcovers, appropriate fabrics and the many considerations for their use. Also discussed will be a specific treatment of an easy chair c. 1815, owned by the Historic Annapolis Foundation, Annapolis, Maryland. This chair still retains its original upholstery materials after almost two hundred years, and physical evidence indicates that it had been intended only to be slipcovered. The existing layers answered questions posed by furniture historians and offered challenges for its stabilization and treatment.


Speakers
AB

Anne Battram

Upholstery Conservator, Biltmore Estate
Having had her own upholstery business in Canada for five years and, never intending to ever do upholstery again, Anne closed her shop to attend the University of Windsor in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. There she obtained an Honor’s Art History Degree and then trained as an object’s conservator at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. Upon finishing graduate school, however, she was seduced back into the world of upholstery... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:15am - 10:45am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Electronic Media) A Hands-Off Approach to Controlling Media-Based Artworks
Brad Dilger, Multimedia Specialist, Indianapolis Museum of Art, and Richard McCoy, Conservator of objects and Variable Art, Indianapolis Museum of Art

With the continued and increasing use of electronic media components in contemporary art projects, a need has arisen to efficiently and accurately control the active cycle of these components while on display. The Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) has created a novel approach to effectively manage its contemporary art projects that have electronic media components using a “hands-off” approach.

There are several methods controlling electronic media components in galleries, such as simple timers, manufacturer-based, internal controls, the occasionally unreliable human controller, and computerized control systems. For the past 7 years the IMA has tested, installed, and maintained an innovative and effective approach to controlling its electronic media components in the gallery with a completely computerized control system. The IMA’s solution, which was created through an inter-departmental working group from the Installation Department, Conservation Department, and Information Technology (IT) Department, does not require daily human interaction to maintain a gallery schedule. This relatively low-cost solution allows electronic media components to be controlled both autonomously and via web-based graphical user interface (GUI). This GUI can easily function from smart phones.

Autonomous control of electronic art is based on a system of linking together different software and hardware components from various manufacturers. This technology has had widespread use in commercial, educational, and residential applications to control all aspects of a building functions: Lighting, HVAC, security, entertainment, irrigation, are just a few systems that can be covered by computerized control systems. It is believed that the IMA is the first museum to apply this system to electronic media components in contemporary art projects and has been using the solution for nearly a decade with great success.

This approach achieves an important goal of relieving staff from having to physically manipulate electronic media components in the gallery on a day-to-day basis, and has dramatically increased the efficiency and proper functionality of contemporary art projects by reducing their gallery “downtime” caused by errors.

This paper will discuss three case studies based on IMA art installations. These case studies will demonstrate the success and limitations of the system, and provide clear guidance for other institutions for installing this system.

Speakers
avatar for Richard McCoy

Richard McCoy

Principal, Richard McCoy & Associates
I'm a conservation and historic preservation consultant in the state of Indiana, educator, writer, researcher, guy who loves his family.


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:30am

(Paintings) Experimental and Innovative: Matisse (Paintings) from the Wertheim Collection
Henri Matisse was one of the great pioneers of modern European painting. His body of work from 1913-17 has been referred to as his most experimental and innovative due to his use of a subdued palette that included the use of black, and a varied working technique comprised of complicated layering due to compositional revisions (D’Alessandro & Elderfield 2010). Two of his paintings from the Fogg Museum’s Wertheim Collection, Geraniums, 1915 and Still-Life with Apples, 1916, were subject to a technical analysis in order to understand the materials, development, and structure of these significant works and to determine whether or not they displayed the characteristics of the 1913-17 period. With the aid of infrared reflectography (IRR), infrared digital photography (IRDP), and x-radiography it was concluded that Geraniums had slight variations from its contour underdrawing while Still-Life with Apples had significant compositional revisions. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) identified a limited, subdued palette for Still-Life with Apples and a diverse, bright palette for Geraniums. Cross-section analysis with reflected light microscopy (RLM) supported by examination of the painting under magnification revealed complicated paint stratification in both works as well as striking changes in color combinations. A water-soluble red paint containing carbohydrate inclusions was identified in Geraniums in cross-section analysis and FTIR. The carbohydrate component may have been an additive in the paint; however further analysis is necessary to identify its function. The construction sequence of both paintings was hypothesized using digital image manipulation in order to visualize the various stages of the paintings as Matisse may have created them. Based on the technical analysis with support from archival information, it was concluded that Still-Life with Apples displayed characteristics of the 1913-17 period and Geraniums did not exhibit the same characteristics as Still-Life with Apples, and with supportive archival information from Bernheim-Jeune, dates to approximately 1910.

Both paintings had non-original synthetic varnishes noted in the conservation files and identified with FTIR analysis. Varnish removal was proposed due to the poor aging of the synthetic varnishes, which had altered the original aesthetics and surface quality of the paintings. Treatment of Geraniums involved removing the non-original synthetic varnish and returning it to a more original state. While solubility testing was performed on Still-Life with Apples and testing confirmed that brush strokes and more accurate colors would be revealed, curators decided not to proceed with this treatment due to the dramatic change that would occur to the appearance. A second treatment option was chosen including slightly reducing the varnishes with TS-28, filling and inpainting abrasions along the perimeter of the painting, and toning the painted border to match Matisse’s original color. Further conversations with curators are necessary to identify whether or not the date of Geraniums will be changed based upon the collected data and archival information.

*D’Alessandro, Stephanie, Elderfield, John (2010). Matisse: Radical invention 1913-17. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.


Speakers
GD

Gabriel Dunn

Assisstant Paintings Conservator, Whitten & Proctor Fine Art Conservation
Gabriel is the Assistant Paintings Conservator at Whitten & Proctor Fine Art Conservation in Houston, Texas. She received her MA, with a Certificate of Advanced Study in Conservation in 2011 from Buffalo State College. She received her BA in Art History and Painting, as well as a BS in Art Education from Buffalo State College in 2006. Her previous conservation experience includes the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Harvard... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:30am - 11:00am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:35am

(Architecture) A Review of the Test Methods/Stain Reduction Techniques Used on the Smithsonian Natural History Museum, Washington DC
One of the challenges of specific stain reduction or removal from building facades that are either stone or masonry is in the rapid, accurate appraisal of the likely staining materials. Many times this is empirical, rather than analytical, and generally derived from contextual cues, rather than direct test methods. All too often, standard ‘formulas’ for exterior washing are applied to specific cleaning problems, without benefit or careful tailoring of cleaning system to a specific problem. This paper will present a case history for the use of a diagnostic ‘test’ kit’ of various cleaning reagents (chelators, acids, bases, buffers) in easily stored and transferred gel form to evaluate quickly the efficacy of any given reagent or condition to a specific staining material. In particular, this ‘kit’ contains a low cost, easily read, colorimetric test for Fe in particular. Where iron is present, either in mineral form or as corrosion products, the removal of organic staining material in particular is difficult at best because of the extreme insolubility of these metal/organic materials. To illustrate its application and use, a case history, the cleaning issues involved in the removal of staining materials from the façade of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington DC will used as an example. A ‘gel-paste’ format was used to create a tailored poulticing material. The poultice used in this context was made from low cost materials and was prepared with reagents that were indicated by the gel ‘test kit’ to be most effective in this context. The construction of the poultice, the materials used in it, the rationale for their inclusion, and the application method, will be discussed. Additionally, in presenting the evolution of the treatment from testing, to execution, we will include a discussion of the didactic opportunity it provided for introducing new materials and methods to building maintenance personnel.

Speakers
EH

Ellen Hagsten

Traditional & Sustainable Building
RC

Richard C. Wolbers

Assistant Professor of Art Conservation, University of Delaware
Masters degree in fine arts from the University of California (San Diego, CA, USA) in 1977. Masters degree in art conservation from the University of Delaware (Newark, DE, USA) in 1984. Associate Professor of Art Conservation in the Winterthur-University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation (WUDPAC). Involved in the preservation and conservation of paintings. Autho's address: Department of Art Conservation, 303 Old College, University of... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:35am - 11:00am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:45am

(Research and Technical Studies) Contemporary Conservation for Contemporary Materials
Conserving contemporary materials was first formally recognised as a discipline in 1991 marked by the conference ‘Saving the Twentieth Century’ organized by the Canadian Conservation Institute. Since mass production of plastics began in the 1940s, the global annual production has doubled every 15 years reaching 245 million tonnes in 2009. Plastics in new, recycled and upcycled forms have had a significant influence on industrial, domestic and cultural aspects of everyday life since the Second World War and therefore comprise an increasing proportion of museum collections.
Since the start of the 21st Century, conservation research and practice for plastics have taken a preventive approach in which either the factors causing or accelerating degradation are removed in order to slow the major breakdown reactions. Gas adsorbents, also known as molecular traps or scavengers, are frequently used by museums to slow the rate of degradation of semi-synthetic plastics. Adsorbents are either installed in an active filter system in showcases and storage areas or simply placed in petri dishes or polyethylene bags inside storage boxes or enclosures.

Silica gel, activated carbon and zeolites are the most frequently used adsorbents in museum storage and display of all materials. They are introduced to create a microclimate by removing specific gases. Although widely employed to slow the degradation of semi-synthetic plastics, there has been little structured research into their effectiveness. Studies usually analyse the object before and after. However, it is difficult to detect degradation in plastics until it reaches an advanced stage.

In a recent research project, gases adsorbed from new model and degraded cellulose acetate (CA) sheets dating from the 1950s to 1990s were identified and quantified. CA has been used since 1910 to produce spectacle frames, Lego bricks, Gabo sculptures and Disney cels. CA hydrolyses to form acetic acid which results in the autocatalytic breakdown of the plastic if it is not removed. After exposure, silica gel, activated carbon, zeolite 4A, Corrosion Intercept and an archival card were desorbed using GC-MS and evolved gas analysis which both identified the adsorbed gases and how strongly they were bound. Silica gel, activated carbon, zeolite and the archival card were found to non-selectively adsorb gases. In addition to water, silica gel adsorbed acetic acid and phthalate plasticizer from CA. Zeolite 4A is frequently used to slow the onset of autocatalysis of CA by removing acetic acid and water from enclosures. However, results from the current research suggested that zeolite 4A also adsorbed the plasticizer from the CA film, causing it to shrink. Activated carbon adsorbed both the plasticizer and flame inhibitor triphenylphosphate. It was ineffective to include adsorbents with new, undegraded CA films to inhibit the onset of degradation. In the absence of the degradation product acetic acid, the phthalate plasticizer was adsorbed resulting in shrinkage.

In conclusion, storing cellulose acetate in an archival card box may be more effective at adsorbing acetic acid than using adsorbents. The non-selectivity of many of the general adsorbents used in conservation is of concern and suggests that they may be ineffective or even accelerate degradation. Low temperature storage may be a more effective approach to preventive conservation of plastics than adsorbents.

Speakers
YS

Yvonne Shashoua

Senior Researcher, Department of Conservation, National Museum of Denmark


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:45am - 11:15am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

10:45am

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) Treatment of a Suite of Baroque Revival Style Seating Furniture

A suite of Baroque revival style seating furniture was treated in preparation for restoration of the second floor living hall at Biltmore, George Washington Vanderbilt’s house and estate in Asheville, North Carolina.

Biltmore was conceived and built by George Washington Vanderbilt, who employed architect Richard Morris Hunt and landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. Boasting approximately four acres of floor space, the 250 room house was first opened to family and friends for Christmas of 1895. George’s only daughter Cornelia and her husband, John Cecil, opened Biltmore House to the public in 1930. Today the property encompasses eight thousand acres of forested terrain in the mountains of western North Carolina and attracts over one million visitors each year.

Because the house is so sizeable, many unusually large suites of furniture were purchased or produced to furnish it. One such is a suite of Italian Baroque revival style upholstered furniture, composed of 12 armchairs and two settees. The pieces are heavily carved in the manner of Italian sculptor Andrea Brustolon, and likely date to the nineteenth century. In the 1970s, eight of the chairs and one settee from this suite were reupholstered using modern materials and placed in the newly-finished Music Room. The remaining four chairs and settee remained in storage, upholstered in gauffraged wool plush.

At the beginning of this project, there were many questions: Was the large suite purchased new for Biltmore? Where in the house was it originally used? Is there any evidence of other upholstery treatments? The suite was also studied to determine if all of the pieces were made together; while clearly a matched set, variations in carving can be seen among the group.

Ultimately, six chairs and one settee were treated for reinstallation in the second floor living hall. This paper will present the research findings and the treatment of the furniture using minimally-intrusive upholstery techniques and the new reproduction gauffraged wool plush and trim.


Speakers
GB

Genevieve Bieniosek

Associate Furniture Conservator, Biltmore Estate


Saturday June 1, 2013 10:45am - 11:15am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Architecture) Putting the Conservator in the Mix: Using the MCP to Formulate Cleaning Systems for (Architecture)
Often the cleaning of historic building exteriors is specified in terms of a handful of commercial cleaning products.

While the Modular Cleaning Program (MCP) was designed from the perspective of paintings conservators, there is no reason that the system cannot be extended to allow rapid prototyping and testing of cleaning systems for the built heritage community.

The Modular Cleaning Program will be introduced with a focus on aqueous cleaning systems. Typical architectural cleaning systems will be examined and modeled with the MCP. The program will then be used to change parameters of the cleaning system in such a way that small batches of prototype cleaning systems could me mixed, tested and evaluated.

It is hoped that such a system would give the conservator a more prominent role in selecting cleaning systems for buildings.

Input form the audience will be solicited to direct modifications to the MCP to facilitate formulating this type of a cleaning system.

Speakers
CS

Chris Stavroudis

Paintings Conservator, West Hollywood
Chris Stavroudis is a paintings conservator in private practice in West Hollywood, California. Chris obtained undergraduate degrees in Chemistry and Art History from the University of Arizona and his Master’s degree from the Winterthur University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation. He wrote and continues to develop the Modular Cleaning Program and has taught over 25 workshops on using the MCP. Hi is one of the four... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:00am - 11:25am
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Book and Paper) Two New Techniques for Loss Compensation In Art on Paper: Integration of Surface Losses Using Textile Fibers and The Use of Sprayed Cellulose Powder To Minimize Foxing and Other Discoloration
The integration of losses to the media in works of art on paper has traditionally been done using pastel, colored pencils or paint based media such as watercolor. In this presentation we will discuss the use of colored cotton and polyester fibers derived from machine made threads to reintegrate losses in design. The technique was developed to treat a large scale watercolor, "Tintagel on the Cornish Coast" by William Trost Richards, that had sustained gouges and abrasions to the primary support. The textile fibers, obtained from commercially available sources, were processed in various ways to prepare them for placement on the watercolor. To obtain finely divided fibers, the threads were immersed in liquid nitrogen and then cut while frozen. Admixtures of fibers can be made to approximate color tones, or successive overlapping of fibers can be done to build up color intensity. Methyl cellulose was used as the binder for both its' adhesive properties and surfactant action. Finely divided fibers tend to remain separated in methyl cellulose, a factor that helps in application. The stability of the fibers used was investigated. The removability of the fibers was assessed. Preliminary work indicates that this method has great potential for use with a variety of media where losses are small or linear. It has less potential for success over large areas, although the technique is evolving.

Cellulose powder has long been part of the inpainter's tool box and is indispensable for certain operations, such as in the concealment of foxing. The technique presented shows how cellulose powder can be made into a slurry with methyl cellulose and sprayed with an external mix airbrush to create consistent films of certain thickness and opacity. The dried films can then be shaped to the stained areas of the paper, then activated in situ with low moisture. The cellulose powder can be toned before or after application to refine the integration. A drawing by Nicholas-Touissant Charlet treated with this method will be discussed.

Speakers
SJ

Stephanie Jewell

Assistant Paper Conservator, Balboa Art Conservation Center
Stephanie Jewell received a Masters in Art Conservation from Queens University in Ontario Canada in 2009. Ms. Jewell interned at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Denison Museum, the Williamstown Art Conservation Center and the Walters Art Museum. Her training includes an Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship in the Book and Paper Lab of the Division of Conservation and Technical Research at The Walters Art Museum. Stephanie is currently the... Read More →
EO

Elissa O'Loughlin

Senior Paper Conservator, The Walters Art Museum


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Electronic Media) Expanding into Shared Spaces: SFMOMA's Black Box Studio
Teamwork and communication between curators, technicians, registrars, and conservators prove to be invaluable in the preservation of media art installations. The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) has a long history of fruitful, interdepartmental collaborations and with the upcoming expansion of the museum, scheduled to open in 2016, working spaces have been conceived and designed to reflect and advance this tradition. This talk explains this series of adjacent and shared spaces — a black box workshop, a time-based media conservation studio and an exhibitions technical workroom — where time-based media conservators and the exhibitions technical team will prepare, stage, document, repair and thus preserve the museum's rapidly growing media arts collection.

Speakers
avatar for Martina Haidvogl

Martina Haidvogl

Associate Media Conservator, SFMOMA
Martina Haidvogl is the Associate Media Conservator at SFMOMA, where she has piloted documentation and preservation initiatives for the Media Arts collection since 2011. Martina has lectured and published internationally on media conservation and its implications for museum collections, as well as conservation strategies for audio artworks by Dieter Roth, the subject of her master's thesis. She studied conservation and restoration at the... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:00am

(Paintings) What Lies Beneath: The Textural Influence of Grounds on Diego Rivera’s Cubism
Whether in portraits or still lifes, Diego Rivera strove to create complex surfaces in his Cubist works, employing a variety of techniques to achieve them. Between 1913 and 1917, Rivera’s forays in Cubist painting yielded dozens of images marked by a significant interest in textural variation. Based on the results of a technical study of thirty-four paintings from this period examined by the author while she was the William R. Leisher Fellow in Modern and Contemporary Painting Conservation at the National Gallery of Art, this paper will explore Rivera’s creative use of grounds to produce topographic variations uncommon in his paintings up to this point in his career. The techniques used to create these textures were influenced by Rivera’s academic training in Mexico and the materials he was taught to use there. Most important in his development, however, were Rivera’s years spent in Europe and the artists with whom he came into contact.

As Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque’s dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler predicted in his Der Weg Zum Kubismus in 1920, “every talented young artist will have to come to an understanding with Cubism.” Rivera did just that, borrowing the vocabulary devised by those two artists. However, Rivera’s experiments with Cubism also marked the first time that he developed his own methods of painting, creatively applying grounds to create considerable topographic variation in his upper layers of paint. Rivera’s Cubist works represent a transitional period in his career, a turning point from his academic training to his later life as a mural painter. His experimentations with Cubism sparked an inventive streak in Rivera that extended beyond his time in Europe. By the time he returned to Mexico in 1921, Rivera had become an artist with a unique vision and an arsenal of painting techniques that he would utilize throughout the rest of his career.


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:00am - 11:30am
JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:15am

(Research and Technical Studies) Rapid, Minimally Invasive, Identification of Degraded Audio and Video Magnetic Tapes
The Library of Congress (LC) holds more than 500,000 magnetic tape objects, many of which are degrading rapidly. As at many cultural heritage institutions and archives, a rapid method to identify degraded tape is needed to facilitate treatment prioritization before copying and/or digitizing. Even in ideal storage conditions, tapes degrade. Tapes produced during the 1970-1990’s often contain polyester-urethane (PEU) binders that hold magnetic particles onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates. PEU binders are known to degrade via hydrolysis, which causes squealing and/or shedding of magnetic material onto playback device heads. This condition is referred to as ‘sticky shed syndrome’ (SS). There are no known non-destructive methods for rapidly identifying degraded magnetic tapes. Several brands and models of tape are known to contain PEU binders and are known to degrade, however tapes are rarely held in their original packaging or even kept on original hubs, making classification by visual inspection impossible. Playing a tape is the currently accepted method for classifying a tape as SS or non-SS. If the tape squeals, flakes, or gums playback equipment, it is classified as SS and removed from the digitization workflow for treatment. This process can not only render the playback device unusable, but it can permanently damage the tape and lead to loss of data.

Assessment of 100 LC ¼” audio collection tapes led to the development of a method for the rapid identification of degraded tapes prior to playback. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistics (MVS), the method’s rate of accurately assessing tape condition was better than 98%.

This talk will focus on the application of the classification model produced from LC collection-based ¼” audiotape FTIR data to other formats such as U-matic, VHS, and ½” video. The ¼” dataset classification model was also applied to data collected from ¼” audio reference tapes of known provenance spanning multiple manufacturers and models. Establishing the applicability of the classification model to a broad and known set of tapes was completed to predict the usefulness of the model for collections outside of the LC and may allow for the identification of specific makes and models within a particular collection. In addition, direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was conducted on a set of degraded and non-degraded ¼” audio and ½” video tapes to investigate their chemical differences.

FTIR combined with statistical analysis is envisioned as a tool for rapid, on-site analysis of collection materials. However, attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR directly contacts the tape, and its use may affect the surface and possibly the sound or image fidelity. Modern ¼” audio tape was pre-recorded with standard test tones, subjected to ATR-FTIR testing, and played through an analog to digital recorder. The post-ATR-FTIR signals were compared to the pre-recorded signals at the same locations. The results of this testing will also be discussed.

Speakers
PA

Peter Alyea

Sound Engineer, Library of Congress
Peter Alyea is a Sound Engineer in the Preservation Reformatting Division at the Library of Congress and has been the project lead at the Library on the IRENE project, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Livermore Laboratories.
EB

Eric Breitung

Scientist, Library of Congress
Eric Breitung is a physical organic chemist with ten years of industrial research experience in coatings and thin-films. He began working in the field of art conservation science in 2006 as an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow at the Metropolitan Museum of Art&#39&#59;s Department of Scientific Research, where he developed novel methods for treating and producing scratch resistant large-format face-mounted photographs. A side project... Read More →
avatar for Brianna M. Cassidy

Brianna M. Cassidy

Ph.D. Student, University of South Carolina
SS

Samantha Skelton

Ph.D. Candidate, NACCA, University of Glasgow/TH Köln
Samantha is a Ph.D. Candidate in the Marie-Curie research and training network "New Approaches to the Conservation of Contemporary Art" (NACCA), coordinated by Maastricht University. She graduated in 2014 from the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation, specializing in paintings conservation. She graduated summa cum laude from the University of South Carolina in 2011, with an Honors BA in Art History and minors in... Read More →


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:15am - 11:45am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:15am

(Textiles + Wooden Artifacts) Two’s Company: Supportive Relationships

A pair of documented 1826 Phyfe window benches with original under-upholstery materials belonging to the Brooklyn Museum of Art were treated for the American Wing’s exhibition “Duncan Phyfe: Master Cabinet Maker in New York” at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 20, 2011 to May 6, 2012. The window benches retained their original webbings, baseclothes and squabs. Examination revealed different methods of corner cuts and variations in the attachments of the basecloths to the frames. These benches are of interest both in comparing the differences between them in upholstery techniques and for the treatment using a carbon fiber support system for the squabs.

The opportunity to examine multiple objects in a suite provokes discussions on the relationships between shop practices and the artisans doing the work. While this perspective has a history of scholarship in American furniture manufacture, it has yet to be seriously undertaken for historic upholstery and upholsterers. What are our interpretations when different textile materials are used or variations in techniques between objects are observed within the same campaign? Other pairs of upholstered objects with variations found in under-upholstery techniques and materials during examination will be discussed.

To retain the historically valuable comparative information found in this pair of window benches, our treatment of the benches provided an example of the use of carbon fiber supports to protect original material without intrusive techniques while enabling appropriate replacement showcovers to be installed. Matrixes of wovens embedded in resins have been used in conservation for a number of years. The development and availability of woven carbon fiber in epoxy offers advantages over fiber glass in polyester with its higher strength-to-weight ratios and ease of working properties. The issue in the treatment of the window benches was how to support the squabs on top of the original basecloth and webbing while protecting these fragile materials from the squab weight and allowing visibility and access to the original materials. The use of carbon fiber epoxy matrix sheet for this treatment will be described. Other uses of carbon fiber and epoxy for underupholstery support systems that we used in other treatments will be discussed.


Speakers
NB

Nancy Britton

Conservator, Metropolitan Museum of Art


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:15am - 11:45am
JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:25am

(Architecture) Best Practice in Masonry Cleaning – Panel Discussion
Speakers
JA

John A. Fidler

President & Chief Technical Officer, John Fidler Preservation Technology Inc
British-licensed architect with two postgratuate degrees in building conservation and over 36 years award-winning experience specializing in the conservation of historic buildings, ancient monuments and archaeological sites. Professional Associate of AIC; Fellow of the RICS, Society of Antiquaries, International Institute for Conservation and of the Association for Preservation Technology. From 2012 running my own international consultancy... Read More →
FG

Frances Gale

Conservation Scientist, UT Austin School of Architecture
DS

Deborah Slaton

Principal, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.
NW

Norman Weiss

Director of Scientific Research, Integrated Conservation Resources, Inc.


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:25am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Book and Paper) Testing the Waters: Applying New Techniques to the Cleaning of Acrylic Paint Film
Techniques for cleaning acrylic emulsion paint surfaces are still emerging in the contemporary landscape of conservation. Our discipline is in a process of identifying problematic first generation practices, while pursuing improved and alternative treatments, and framing a dialogue to guide future innovations. This paper will address itself to three case studies, relating to the implementation of new aqueous cleaning systems for acrylic paint films on paper supports.

The foundational issues of this practice derive from acrylic works’ sensitivity to aqueous cleaning methods. Paint film swelling and surfactant/pigment disruption are two of the primary risks facing conservators when cleaning acrylic works of art on paper. Utilizing a technique learned at the 2011 Cleaning of Acrylic Painted Surfaces (CAPS) Workshop organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and held at the Museum of Modern Art, we applied the use of pH and conductivity meters to test acrylic paint surfaces before creating “custom-fit” aqueous cleaning solutions. The cleaning solution may be adjusted to the approximate pH and conductivity of the painted surface, thereby minimizing changes to its physical and mechanical properties.

This presentation will describe the treatments of three works on paper by three different contemporary artists working with acrylic emulsion media. First, the treatment of In the Garden (1986) by Paula Rego, an acrylic painting on paper with embedded dirt and dust, will demonstrate the aqueous cleaning technique adapted to numerous pigments and their mixtures as well as varying thicknesses of paint film. Secondly, Maquette for Smoking Cigarette Relief (1983) by Tom Wesselmann will demonstrate the technique as applied to the removal of active mold growth and associated staining. And finally, a Classico by Robert Ryman (1968) in which this cleaning technique proved ineffective and other options were explored. The possibility of using this method for cleaning paper supports will be discussed briefly as well.


Speakers
avatar for Amy Hughes

Amy Hughes

Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Paper Conservation, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Amy Hughes is an Andrew W. Mellon Fellow in Paper Conservation at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Amy graduated in 2014 from NYU’s Institute of Fine Arts Conservation Center with an MA in Art History and an Advanced Certificate in Art Conservation. In 2014, she was a Smithsonian Graduate Fellow in paper conservation at the Freer and Sackler Galleries. Her prior experience includes graduate internships at Daria K. Conservation, the... Read More →
DK

Daria Keynan

Paper Conservator, Daria K. Conservation
Daria Keynan is a conservator of modern and contemporary art on paper in New York City. She has authored numerous conservation publications, and is an instructor for the AIC Professional Development Course "Cleaning and Conductivity: New Methods for Treating Paintings, Works on Paper, & Textiles."


Saturday June 1, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

11:30am

(Electronic Media) The Role of the Technical Narrative for Preserving New Media Art
In 2009 the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art initiated a project to develop a sustainable, long-term preservation strategy for software-based artworks. For this research two artworks in its collection were examined.

The first work, Julia Scher's Predictive Engineering 2 (1998), a web-based artwork that accompanies a large media installation and mirrors the formative years of HTML programming in the 1990s.

The second work, Agent Ruby, was created by San Francisco-based artist Lynn Hershman Leeson, a pioneer of media-based and conceptual art Hershman’s work features a custom code for artificial intelligence that is embodied by an avatar that can talk back to viewers.
The technical complexity and different media components of these works created a need for new forms of documentation and the concept of a technical narrative was developed. It is a standardized system for documenting digital artworks. The purpose of the technical narrative is to describe:


  • A high level functional description of the work. This is a general description of how the work functions and operates as a whole. This part of the narrative is a platform-neutral description of the work in a general and functional way.

  • A modular examination of the individual components of the work and their specific functions. The intent of this section is to look at every individual component of the work in detail. Additionally a high level examination is given to how all of the parts work as a complete system. This section attempts to map out a general technical schematic of the work.

  • A detailed description of the artwork as it exists upon acquisition. This section is specific about the hardware, software, operating systems, languages, algorithms, video codecs, etc. These platforms, components and technologies are examined closely to inform an understanding of how they serve operational requirements of the work. This section is closely tied to the technical documentation provided by the artist and their engineers, describing the pragmatic requirements for operation and display.

  • An analysis of the current technology platform and an evaluation of its longevity against the current state of technology. Here we consider the long-term stability of the piece upon acquisition. It calls out strategies and concerns in preserving the work over the long term and informs ongoing conservation and maintenance protocols including possible strategies for migration or emulation.

  • The technical narrative is now a standard piece of documentation for all digital based artworks that are acquired by SFMOMA including video, audio and software-based art. This presentation and paper will describe the technical narrative in detail and the processes involved in its creation. Some real world examples from the documentation of software-based artworks and multi-channel video installations will be covered.

    Speakers
    MH

    Mark Hellar

    Owner, Hellar Studios, LLC.


    Saturday June 1, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
    JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    11:30am

    (Paintings) Hans Hofmann’s Last Lesson: A Study of the Artist’s Materials in the Last Decade of His Career
    In 1992, art historian and University of California, Berkeley professor T.J. Clark gave a public lecture based on the university’s renowned collection of Abstract Expressionist art. “What you’re going to hear tonight is a defense of Abstract Expressionism,” began Clark, “[and] if there is to be a defense of Abstract Expressionism at all . . . it will have to be cast as a defense of Hofmann in particular . . . . [for he is] the trigger for the line of argument I’m going to present.”

    Hans Hofmann (1880-1966) was intellectually and physically situated at the nexus of Abstract Expressionist experimentation. For more than four decades, artists and critics from around the country came to hear Hofmann’s synthesis of modern art movements in his “push and pull” theory of color and form. Art critic Clement Greenberg claimed to have been educated by Hofmann, Greenberg’s ideological opponent Harold Rosenberg claimed Hofmann as the first of his “action painters,” and the Museum of Modern Art called Hofmann the “dean of the abstract-expressionist movement.” With students positioned at the forefront of art movements and institutions throughout the United States, Hofmann is a thread running throughout Abstract Expressionism, tying its participants to the efforts of their progenitors and descendants, “which is to say,” according to artist Frank Stella, “all of the twentieth century.”

    Hofmann’s popularity as a teacher peaked in the 1950s, a period when his own painting flourished and a new wave of innovation in paint manufacture led to radical shifts in art making. Many of the condition problems conservators face in the treatment of modern paintings first appear in Abstract Expressionist work, and Hofmann is an excellent mirror of this unique historical moment.

    Building on the author’s research that revealed incompatibility problems in the incorporation of new materials by Hofmann and his Abstract Expressionist colleagues, this new research tracks Hofmann’s use of materials during the ten-year period just prior to and after the 1958 closing of Hofmann's schools in New York City and Provincetown, Massachusetts. Using analytical data gathered from the analysis of over 500 paint and fiber samples, this presentation will trace Hofmann’s embrace of industrial paint binders and modern organic pigments, focusing on relationships between the artist’s late-career materials, style, and the impact of these choices on the long-term stability of Hofmann’s work.



    1. Transcript of lecture on the occasion of the museum’s reinstallation of their extension collection of Hans Hofmann paintings. Courtesy of University of California, Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive. This lecture is the starting point for Clark’s published versions of “In Defense of Abstract Expressionism” in the Summer 1994 edition of October magazine and in the 1999 essay compilation Farewell to an Idea: Episodes from a History of Modernism.

    2. “This writer owes more to the illumination received from Hofmann’s lectures than to any other source.” Clement Greenberg, “Art: Review of an Exhibition by Hans Hofmann and a Reconsideration of Mondrian’s Theories.” The Nation, 21 April 1945.

    3. Harold Rosenberg, “Hans Hofmann: Nature into Action,” ARTnews 56(3), May 1957.

    4. 1963-65 Biennial Report, Museum of Modern Art (New York).

    5. Frank Stella, “The Artist of the Century.” American Heritage 50(7), November 1999.



    Speakers
    avatar for Dawn Rogala

    Dawn Rogala

    Coremans Fellow/Doctoral Candidate and Postgraduate Research Fellow, Preservation Studies Program/University of Delaware and Museum Conservation Institute/Smithsonian Institution
    Dawn V. Rogala is a paintings conservator, a Postgraduate Research Fellow at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum Conservation Institute, and a doctoral candidate in the Preservation Studies Program at the University of Delaware. Ms. Rogala has presented her modern paint materials research in the U.S. and Europe and has co-authored papers on research methodology, paint analysis, and materials-induced condition, including an examination of... Read More →


    Saturday June 1, 2013 11:30am - 12:00pm
    JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    12:00pm

    12:00pm

    AIC's Electronic Media Group Luncheon: Lightning Round Session
    $25 Electronic Media Group members, $30 Non-Electronic Media Group members

    Saturday June 1, 2013 12:00pm - 2:00pm
    JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    12:00pm

    AIC's Paintings Specialty Group Luncheon/Tips Session
    $30 paintings Specialty Group Members, $40 Non-paintings Specialty Group members

    Sponsors
    avatar for Kremer Pigments

    Kremer Pigments

    General Manager, Kremer Pigments Inc.
    KREMER PIGMENTS has been discovering and redeveloping historical pigments and mediums since 1977. Our professional assortment consists of over 100 different mineral pigments made from precious and semiprecious stones, which we offer in various grinds and qualities, over 70 natural earth colors, several hundred ground glass pigments, mineral and organic pigments. Binders, glues, balsams, natural resins, oils, etc round off our pallet. Our large... Read More →


    Saturday June 1, 2013 12:00pm - 2:00pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    1:00pm

    AIC's Architecture Specialty Group
    Annual meeting of AIC's Architecture Specialty Group

    Moderators
    Saturday June 1, 2013 1:00pm - 2:00pm
    JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    1:30pm

    AIC's Wooden Artifacts Group
    Members of AIC's wooden artifacts Group are invited to come to the group's business meeting.

    Saturday June 1, 2013 1:30pm - 2:00pm
    JW Marriott Meeting Room 204-205 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:00pm

    (Architecture) Façade Cleaning: Managing Expectations
    The success of a facade cleaning project should be measured not only by how clean the building looks after the project has been completed, but also whether cleaning has been sufficiently gentle to avoid damaging the substrate. In fact, a building may appear strikingly clean and “like new” because it has been over-cleaned and damaged during the cleaning process. However, a facade cleaning project that has been sufficiently gentle to remove only a portion of soiling and staining may be considered a failure if the results are not clean enough to meet owner expectations.

    Inappropriate and overly aggressive cleaning, with the wrong products or techniques, may permanently damage the substrate, as well as other building elements and site features. Depending on the cleaning system used, and the damage that may have occurred, over-cleaning can also result in increased repair and maintenance needs in the future. However, it may not be easy to define what constitutes damage in a cleaning project, or to convince the owner that damage has occurred.

    Almost any cleaning system can result in damage to some substrates, if not properly tested, applied, and controlled. Some fragile materials can be eroded by water cleaning, and the presence of even a very small amount of iron in the water used for cleaning and rinsing processes can result in staining on some substrates. Microabrasive cleaning systems require very careful control to provide appropriate results without damaging the surface. Chemical cleaners in particular can be subject to misuse; material safety data sheets (MSDS) provide information on chemicals that are hazardous to people rather than chemicals that may be hazardous to building substrates. Aggressive chemicals such as hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, which are present in many proprietary cleaning products, can damage facade components, mobilize staining, and are also hazardous to persons, animals, and the environment. Even less aggressive chemicals, such as organic acids contained in some proprietary cleaners, may react with certain minerals in masonry substrates and cause staining.

    Although conservators and others in the preservation professions would agree that treatments that cause damage to the historic materials should not be used, once a building owner has seen a bright, clean, trial cleaning sample, how can we convince the owner that the cleaning method that resulted in a like-new appearance is not an appropriate solution? This presentation will examine a range of cleaning systems and potential effects on substrates, and consider possible approaches to guiding the building owner to an appropriate decision. Techniques for facilitating discussion and managing expectations include educating the client from the very beginning of the cleaning project; providing a range of trial samples to illustrate potential results (and avoiding trial samples with overly aggressive cleaners); being prepared to illustrate the effects of cleaning systems with examples and by microscopic evaluation before and after cleaning; and emphasizing the benefits of responsible cleaning and the positive aspects of a building that may be less clean—but is more sustainable for the future.

    Speakers
    DS

    Deborah Slaton

    Principal, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
    JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:00pm

    (Architecture) Façade Cleaning: Managing Expectations
    The success of a facade cleaning project should be measured not only by how clean the building looks after the project has been completed, but also whether cleaning has been sufficiently gentle to avoid damaging the substrate. In fact, a building may appear strikingly clean and “like new” because it has been over-cleaned and damaged during the cleaning process. However, a facade cleaning project that has been sufficiently gentle to remove only a portion of soiling and staining may be considered a failure if the results are not clean enough to meet owner expectations.

    Inappropriate and overly aggressive cleaning, with the wrong products or techniques, may permanently damage the substrate, as well as other building elements and site features. Depending on the cleaning system used, and the damage that may have occurred, over-cleaning can also result in increased repair and maintenance needs in the future. However, it may not be easy to define what constitutes damage in a cleaning project, or to convince the owner that damage has occurred.

    Almost any cleaning system can result in damage to some substrates, if not properly tested, applied, and controlled. Some fragile materials can be eroded by water cleaning, and the presence of even a very small amount of iron in the water used for cleaning and rinsing processes can result in staining on some substrates. Microabrasive cleaning systems require very careful control to provide appropriate results without damaging the surface. Chemical cleaners in particular can be subject to misuse; material safety data sheets (MSDS) provide information on chemicals that are hazardous to people rather than chemicals that may be hazardous to building substrates. Aggressive chemicals such as hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, which are present in many proprietary cleaning products, can damage facade components, mobilize staining, and are also hazardous to persons, animals, and the environment. Even less aggressive chemicals, such as organic acids contained in some proprietary cleaners, may react with certain minerals in masonry substrates and cause staining.

    Although conservators and others in the preservation professions would agree that treatments that cause damage to the historic materials should not be used, once a building owner has seen a bright, clean, trial cleaning sample, how can we convince the owner that the cleaning method that resulted in a like-new appearance is not an appropriate solution? This presentation will examine a range of cleaning systems and potential effects on substrates, and consider possible approaches to guiding the building owner to an appropriate decision. Techniques for facilitating discussion and managing expectations include educating the client from the very beginning of the cleaning project; providing a range of trial samples to illustrate potential results (and avoiding trial samples with overly aggressive cleaners); being prepared to illustrate the effects of cleaning systems with examples and by microscopic evaluation before and after cleaning; and emphasizing the benefits of responsible cleaning and the positive aspects of a building that may be less clean—but is more sustainable for the future.

    Speakers
    DS

    Deborah Slaton

    Principal, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
    JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:00pm

    (Book and Paper) Going Beyond Appearance: Use of Imaging Technology for the Examination of Hidden Paint Layers in a Gulistan of Sa’di from the Freer Collection
    Multi-spectral imaging technology is gaining increasing importance for the investigation of artworks on paper. It is non-invasive and relatively easy to implement, and provides valuable information about materials and working methods of the artists. Its exploitation for curatorial and technical research in the field of Islamic art on paper is not as widely adopted, but it is believed to be particularly promising.

    Islamic miniature paintings are complex objects with no set structure, which are often extensively modified throughout their history in response to changes in style and ownership. The Gulistan of Sa’di from the collection of the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC, is an especially notable and illustrative example of these practices. The manuscript was copied in 1468-69 in Herat, capital of the Timurid Empire. It then travelled to Tabriz, where lavishly illuminated borders were added around the mid of the 1540s at the royal workshop of the Safavid ruler Shah Tahmasb. Under the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (1628-57), the original illustrations were completely repainted by some of the most respected artists of the court, but tantalizing traces of the earlier paintings can be seen on the opposite sides of the folios as discolored areas produced by copper-based pigments.

    A thorough imaging campaign aimed at revealing as much as possible of these pre-existing paintings was performed as part of a fellowship funded by the Smithsonian Institution and hosted by the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Washington DC. The main tool used for this purpose was the VSC 6000, a high resolution multi-spectral imaging system manufactured by Foster and Freeman, and designed for forensic investigation of questioned documents. Examinations using reflected and transmitted visible light, UV light and reflected and transmitted IR light were performed with this instrument. Additional pivotal information was acquired with X-ray computed radiography and a targeted use of XRF undertaken in the Department of Conservation and Scientific Research at the Freer Gallery of Art.

    From an art historical perspective, the investigation successfully exposed sections of the underlying paintings, allowing comparisons between Persian and Indian depictions of the same subject. From a technical standpoint, it drew attention to the potential and limitations offered by the implemented equipment, and to the specific challenges involved in the investigation of Islamic miniature paintings. This research also offered an opportunity to devise a method that coherently brings together the complementary information obtained in the different spectral regions.

    Speakers
    avatar for Emily Jacobson

    Emily Jacobson

    Paper & Photographs Conservator, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
    BM

    Blythe McCarthy

    Andrew W. Mellon Senior Scientist, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
    Blythe McCarthy is the Andrew W. Mellon Senior Scientist at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. She received her doctorate in materials science from Johns Hopkins University and has held fellowships at the Getty Conservation Institute and the Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Science. Her research interests include the technical study of ceramic and metal objects, and the development of... Read More →
    EP

    Elisabetta Polidori

    Morse Paper Conservation Fellow, Museum of Fine Arts
    Elisabetta Polidori is Morse Paper Conservation Fellow at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Before taking up this role, Elisabetta was Smithsonian Postgraduate Conservation Fellow at the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, where she spent a year performing research on artworks from the Islamic collection. Elisabetta holds a BA in Art History from the University of Florence and a MA in Conservation of Paper and Parchment from the... Read More →


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:00pm

    (Electronic Media) Let’s Talk Digital: An Approach to Managing, Storing, and Preserving Time-Based Media Art Works
    Alex Cooper, Lighting Designer, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution Isabel Meyer DAMS Branch Manager, Office of the Chief Information Officer, Smithsonian Institution

    Born digital Time Based Media Art (TBMA) works are an emerging and rapidly growing art form which pose significant technology challenges to art museums and other collecting institutions across the globe. Within the Smithsonian Institution (SI), the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) and the National Portrait Gallery (NPG) are working together to address the unique challenges inherent in preserving works of this kind. Born-digital works are generated in real time using digital information stored in the form of binary data. As such, they are vulnerable to the same integrity (data corruption) and obsolescence concerns of any digital file format or software. The preservation of born-digital works requires both IT-based infrastructure to safely store and organize this data, as well as an organizational method to document, describe, and categorize information related to the artist’s intent and the work’s provenance.

    To meet these needs OCIO has developed the Digital Asset Management System (DAMS), and the NPG has created the TBMA Archival Package. The DAMS is an enterprise-level Digital Asset Management System used to store, manage, preserve, and share the Smithsonian’s rapidly growing collection of digital assets and related information.

    An enterprise digital asset management system is essential to meeting SI’s objectives for:

    • Preservation and stewardship of objects and specimens.
    • Organizing, classifying, and locating digital assets.
    • Delivery of digital assets in multiple formats.
    • Public outreach and education and electronic commerce.
    • Participation in external cultural heritage, library, and science initiatives.

    The Time Based Media Archival Package is a method used to organize TBMA assets including the digital essence of the work, as well as related curatorial, exhibition, and collections management related documents. This presentation will include discussions of the DAMS system architecture (hardware, database, application software, storage, staffing resources, and operational procedures) as well as functional aspects of the DAMS (user roles, asset security policies, ingest methods, metadata models, and transcoding) as well as the structure of the TBMA Archival Package, and its various components.

    Speakers
    IM

    Isabel Meyer

    DAMS Branch Manager, Office of the Chief Information Officer, Smithsonian Institution


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
    JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:00pm

    (Paintings) Modernizing Stretchers for (Paintings) on Canvas
    Jia-Sun Tsang, Senior paintings Conservator, Don Williams, Senior Furniture Conservator, and Inês Madruga Carvalho Caldeira, paintings Conservation Fellow, Smithsonian Institution’s Museum Conservation Insitute (MCI); Rick Pelasara, Exhibit Production Manager, Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian

    Stretchers for paintings on canvas first appeared in the mid-18th century. Since then, a variety of devices have been used to expand the corners of stretchers to create tight, even surfaces. These devices have included traditional wooden wedges, modern ICA spring stretchers, and expansion bolt stretchers, all employed to impose dimensional changes at the corners. If not used properly, this type of expansion through corners can harm works of art by concentrating excess stress at corners, along with many other concomitant risks.

    Previous MCI-based research ,2 into the mechanical behavior of paintings, combined with the authors’ experiential observations, provided the impetus to develop an innovative stretcher system that would provide strong, even, reliable support for a canvas without expanding the corners. We have developed a prototype stretcher made of aluminum and Delrin® (an engineered polymer with properties bridging the gap between metal and wood), with threaded thumb screws for tension adjustment positioned at calculated intervals along the stretcher bars, not at the corners. This system has several advantages: it can adjust the tension in each direction and location separately; it provides stability and even tension while conserving aged and lined paintings; and it effectively corrects planar distortions through infinitely variable localized tension adjustments.

    This new system can be adapted to serve as an insert for retrofitting extant paintings with lax, nonplanar canvases that cannot be safely dismounted, and also as a new stretcher for original artworks. The prototype stretcher can be retrofitted to an existing painting to impart structural strength and integrity without imposing any new stresses or distortions on the extant stretcher corners. Instead, the stresses and concomitant strains are introduced along the bars of the stretcher, in effect allowing the corners to “float” and achieve their own structural equilibrium. This feature is even more pronounced in the prototype stretcher developed for new paintings, in that the intersections of the wooden tacking bars allow for the structural equilibrium required by the canvas. The use of this innovative system with modern and contemporary large-scale paintings has significant ramifications: besides providing structural soundness and even surfaces, adjustments and corrections of canvas tension can be made on-site in galleries and museums, without having to dismount the paintings.

    As an example of this new stretcher’s practical application, to treat a 150-year-old painting with severe planar distortion and a fragile surface sensitive to moisture and heat, our team designed and installed a prototype as an insert. Fitting the at-risk painting with our newly designed stretcher immediately corrected the severe planar distortion of the canvas, without the use of heat, moisture, or weight.

    Speakers
    IM

    Inês Madruga Carvalho Caldeira

    Inês Madruga Carvalho Caldeira is a Paintings Conservation Fellow at the MCI. She received an MEng in structural/civil engineering from the Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Portugal, in 2005, and an MA in conservation of fine art from Northumbria University, UK, in 2012, specializing in easel paintings. Her interest is in the conservation of traditional paintings, with a focus on research into the mechanical... Read More →
    RP

    Rick Pelasara

    Rick Pelasara is the Exhibit Production Manager at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. He attended the Catholic University. Since 1974 Rick has been involved managing production facilities including Production and Logistics Manager for the Malaysian National Science Center in Kuala Lumpur (1994-95), Cape Coast Castle Museum in Ghana (1996) and Venice Biennale Italy (2005, 2007). He has a special interest in and been involved... Read More →
    JT

    Jia-sun Tsang

    Senior Paintings Conservator, Smithsonian Museum Conservation Institute
    JIA-SUN TSANG is a senior paintings conservator at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum Conservation Institute (MCI). She has an MS in art conservation from the Winterthur/University of Delaware program and an MS in chemistry from Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. She came on staff with the Smithsonian Institute since 1988. Jia-sun had focused on the characterization of acrylic and other twentieth century painting... Read More →
    DW

    Don Williams

    Don Williams is Senior Furniture Conservator at MCI. He trained as traditional craftsman in furniture restoration, foundry patternmaking, and metal casting, and then received his BA from the University of Delaware. He joined the Smithsonian in 1984, and for many years directed their MA Program in Furniture Conservation. He is a past Chair of the AIC Wooden Artifacts Group and currently serves on the US Senate Curatorial Committee. He was the... Read More →


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
    JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:00pm

    (Research and Technical Studies) Evaluation of Bridged Siloxanes as Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Consolidants for Qin Shihuang’ Terracotta Army
    Qin Shihuang’s Terracotta Army is one of the most important and well-known cultural heritage sites in China. The army was probably set up to protect the nearby grave of the first emperor Qin Shihuang (259–210 BC) as well as his afterlife. At the renowned site, archaeologists began the latest round of excavation in 2009 in a pit untouched for two decades. The main damages of the unearthed ware sculptures are missing surface chips, cracking, and flaking, which are possible due to salt erosion and freeze-thaw.

    The feasibility and effectiveness of two typical bridged siloxanes monomers as consolidants for the Qin Shihuang’ Terracotta Army were investigated. The protection performances of selected siloxanes were tested on simulated terracotta samples in the laboratory by methods including colorimetric measurements, consolidant uptake, water absorption ratio, porosity and saturation factor in freeze-thaw. The treated samples exhibited a significant increase in resistance to freeze-thaw and salt damage, which could be attributed to water absorption reduction as the surface became hydrophobic. As expected, the dynamic elastic modulus and compress strength increased as the bridged siloxanes organic-inorganic hybrid formed. Meanwhile, the porosity decreased due to the pore filling by the hybrid consolidant, as revealed by mercury porosimetry. The water resistance ability was evaluated by the capillary water absorption test, and the “breath function” did not significantly change based on the water vapor transmission test data.

    Speakers
    XH

    Xiangna Han

    Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    XH

    Xiao Huang

    Professor, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:00pm - 2:30pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:00pm

    (Discussion Session) What is Value? - A Socratic Dialogue
    The recent AIC annual meeting in 2012 with the theme, “Outreach”, along with the last few AIC annual meetings, showcased excellent initiatives to help define what it is that conservators do and why preserving cultural heritage is so important. This discourse is all the more important, given that one of the most important contemporary issues facing conservators is the effect of the economic crisis and cost cutting on conservation as a whole. AIC members must continually defend their work and answer questions posed by funding agencies and sponsors, local, state, and national governments, the general public, and even many museums themselves. These include critical questions such as

    - what is the value of cultural heritage in this day and age,
    - how does one determine what is worth conserving, and
    - why should cultural heritage be conserved, that is, why is conservation and why are
    conservators valuable.

    These and other questions concerning the term “value” have a wide variety of answers depending on the context in which the word is used.

    What is value? This question will be discussed in the form of a so-called Socratic dialogue. This is a structured form of dialogue in which all participants actively contribute. The purpose of the dialogue is not to solve the question at hand, that is, specifically define what value is, but to investigate each other’s experience and opinions related to value, and to try to determine the essence behind the word. What is it that conservators and other cultural heritage professionals are concerned about when they ask and talk about value? What is the essence of the word? The Socratic dialogue will help the participants understand what is behind the notion of value, so that they can better formulate arguments to convince people to continue to support conservation efforts throughout the country and abroad.

    Moderators
    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:00pm - 4:00pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom C-D 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:30pm

    (Book and Paper) Conservation and Encasement: 1297 Magna Carta
    Interest in sealed anoxic encasements for long-term preservation has grown in the past few decades, particularly in the United States where a number of encasements house some of the nation’s most historically significant parchment and paper documents. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) recently completed an eighteen month project to encase a 1297 Magna Carta. The parchment document with attached pendant seal had been placed in an encasement designed by Nathan Stolow in 1980s, shortly after it was purchased and brought to the United States. Soon thereafter, Magna Carta was placed on long-term loan for display at the National Archives building in Washington D.C. where it was on almost continuous display. A team of NARA conservation and exhibitions staff partnered with staff of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to develop a state-of-the-art anoxic encasement, for the one of two copies of Magna Carta held outside of the United Kingdom and the only copy in the Americas.

    The collaborative effort provided an opportunity to revisit the exacting standards developed by the two federal agencies during the late 1990s and early 2000s for the encasement of the United States Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights, and adapt them to the unique needs of Magna Carta. The resulting encasement ensures long-term stability of the document and meets additional requirements for security and exhibition.

    This paper will discuss various aspects of this project including a brief overview of the history of this particular copy of Magna Carta including its 1980s encasement. However, the authors’ primary focus will be on the 2011 and 2012 conservation treatment, as well as the design, fabrication, and assembly of the new encasement.

    Speakers
    TB

    Terry Boone

    Exhibits Conservatior, National Archives and Records Administration
    MZ

    Morgan Zinsmeister

    Senior Conservator, National Archives
    Morgan Zinsmeister specializes in the treatment of historic American manuscripts and printed documents from the 17th through mid-19th centuries, and art on paper. He is currently a senior conservator at the National Archives in Washington, DC and also operates a freelance practice, Washington Conservation Studio.


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:30pm

    (Electronic Media) I Know a Guy: Collecting Technical Documentation, Locally
    As cultural heritage institutions have recognized the urgency of migrating rare and unique analog video content off of unstable carriers, many have begun to establish facilities for in-house reformatting. In determining which materials could be responsibly digitized in-house, open reel video formats are frequently written off as too problematic to tackle and remain in the purview of specialized vendors. In many cases this assumption is absolutely correct—scarcity of functioning playback equipment and the technical skills to operate it are logical deterrents.

    This brief presentation will address an alternate tack, focused on collecting local technical expertise (as well as equipment) and documenting period production practices, with an eye towards in-house reformatting. The proposed case study is a collection of 1” IVC video, salvaged by a former employee of Charlottesville’s early local origination cable station. Through contact with former station staff, we have sought to document the technical and production expertise needed to understand how equipment was operated and how tapes were produced. This outreach work has helped us to acquire rare playback equipment, as well as putting us in contact with a local video engineer conversant with this obsolete 1” format.

    This talk will provide an overview of this project, with wider recommendations for how documentation can be collected with the explicit goal of overcoming format-specific technical hurdles.

    Speakers
    SV

    Steven Villereal

    Audiovisual Conservator, University of Virginia Library


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
    JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:30pm

    (Paintings) Practical Applications of a Constant Tension Elastic Stretching System
    This talk will present the history, development and ongoing research of a constant tension elastic stretching system for canvas paintings. An overview will present examples of various configurations of the system followed by an in-depth case study of its particular use on two paintings in The Rijksmuseum, the Battle of Waterloo (Rijksmuseum SK-A-1115), one of the largest paintings to which the system has been applied and a large oil canvas wall painting, A Dutch Landscape (permanent loan Amsterdam Museum BK-2011-42)

    Keyable wood stretchers have changed little since their introduction in the 18th century. In the 19th century the first spring systems were applied. But they retained basic corner expansion, and often springs were too strong, thus unable to compress during contraction cycles, leading to damage.

    In the 1950’s Roberto Carita, at the Instituto Centrale per il Restauro in Rome, introduced a new principle for elastic spring tension based on a fixed wooden strainer, allowing the painting to expand and contract along the entire perimeter with evenly distributed tension. In the 1990’s, Antonio Iaccarino Idelson furthered research on the method and adapted it to the conservation of original stretchers. During research a survey quantifying tension of the same mock-up painting was carried out by over 100 experienced Italian conservator-restorers bringing about a greater understanding of the forces needed in stretching lined and unlined paintings. The use of measured values of tension that can be applied to each painting has brought new relevant information to the field. Iaccarino and Carlo Serino, conservator-restorers in Rome, Italy, have applied this method of elastic stretching to numerous paintings throughout Europe. Different configurations have been applied to large and small, lined and unlined paintings. Both easel and ceiling paintings have benefited by adapting existing stretchers or by utilizing new stretchers.

    Treatment of the Rijksmuseum painting, The Battle of Waterloo, is a good illustration of the method. The painting was completed in 1824 by Jan Willem Pieneman (1779-1853) as a memorial to the defeat of Napoleon’s forces by the allied Seventh Coalition armies under the Duke of Wellington. King Willem I of the Netherlands purchased it for his son the Crown Prince, later Willem II, who was wounded in the battle and is depicted in the painting. Still owned by the royal family, it has been on permanent loan to the Rijksmuseum since it’s opening in 1883.

    The painting is wax-lined and measures 5,67 x 8,23 meters. It is one of the largest freestanding paintings in the Netherlands. In 2002 when the museum closed for renovation the painting was rolled for storage. In 2012 it was restretched and rehung in a newly renovated gallery.

    The Pieneman painting had previously been stretched on a traditional keyable wood stretcher. For the restretching, the painting has been attached to a custom-made aluminum constant elastic tension stretcher. Rather than being statically held by tacking, the painting is now mobile, held by springs, which allows the painting to maintain constant tension while adjusting to any dimensional changes brought about by changing environmental conditions.

    Tension on a traditional stretcher relies on pulling during attachment and/or keying out after attachment. Keying plays the dominant role with lined paintings and with large paintings keying plays the only role in achieving final overall tension. Keying then creates irregular tension that focuses bigger forces in the corners of the painting.

    A similar system was applied to a large canvas wall painting by Jurriaan Andriessen (1742-1819), dated 1776, depicting a Dutch landscape. It was also wax lined and measured 3,3 x 5,4 meters. This painting had been in storage on a poorly designed roll for over 50 years and was badly distorted. In this case, the picture was first attached to a new keyable wood stretcher, but with unsatisfactory results in reducing the distortions. The stretcher then was adapted to the constant tension elastic spring system and the painting was reattached with greatly improved results.

    This type of stretching system has proved useful for the Amsterdam paintings and other case studies presented. The relevance of this new understanding and method becomes clear when considering its influence on stress distribution and potential crack formation. The benefit to paintings in general and to large sized modern paintings should also be recognizable.

    Speakers
    AI

    Antonio Iaccarino Idelson

    Conservation of Canvas Paintings Professor, University of Urbino
    Antonio Iaccarino Idelson was born in Naples in 1966. After completing a diploma in wood conservation in Florence, he went on to study conservation of paintings and architectural surfaces from the Istituto Centrale di Restauro of Rome, graduating in 1993. After his studies he worked on a wide range of materials, first on his own, and then as a member of the Cooperative CBC in Rome from 1996 to 2002. A founder of Equilibrarte in 2002, he... Read More →
    CS

    Carlo Serino

    Founder, Equilibrarte
    Carlo Serino graduated in conservation of paintings and architectural surfaces from the Istituto Centrale di Restauro of Rome in 1992. He then started his own firm and between 1993 and 2002 he worked as conservator on a wide variety of materials, with the Istituto Centrale del Restauro and the State Superintendents as his principal clients. A founder of Equilibrarte in 2002, he combines manual skills with an interest in research into technical... Read More →
    LS

    Laurent Sozzani

    Senior Paintings Restorer, Private Practice Amsterdam
    After 22 years working at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam as a senior paintings restorer(1990-2012). Laurent Sozzani has left the museum via a government pre-pension scheme. He continues working as a private paintings restorer of old master, modern and contemporary paintings in an Amsterdam atelier shared with his wife, Eneida Parreira. Laurent graduated from the Winterthur Museum/University of Delaware in 1984. From 1984 to 1985 he worked with Perry... Read More →
    LV

    Lisette Vos

    Junior Paintings Conservator, Rijksmuseum
    Lisette Vos is a junior paintings conservator. She graduated from the University of Amsterdam with a Master degree and Professional Doctorate in Conservation and Restoration of Paintings in 2010. During her studies she was an intern at Stichting Restauratie Atelier Limburg (SRAL) and the Rijksmuseum. After her graduation Lisette worked as a freelance conservator in a private conservation studio focusing on projects for Museum Catharijneconvent... Read More →


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
    JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:30pm

    (Research and Technical Studies) The Role of Polyester Film Encapsulation—With and Without Prior Deacidification—On Paper Degradation, Studied Using Long-Term, Low-Temperature Aging
    Polyester film encapsulation has become a very popular method for supporting and protecting fragile or deteriorated papers. Even new paper, such as maps that are heavily used in libraries and archives are often encapsulated. Previous research on the role of encapsulation on paper aging is limited, but suggests that deacidification is necessary to slow the accelerated deterioration that encapsulated papers will otherwise undergo. Since it is very often not the case that papers are deacidified prior to encapsulation, this would suggest that many encapsulated papers in libraries, museums, and archives today are under threat of accelerated deterioration.
    This study was conducted within the Heritage Science for Conservation project that is funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and located within the Sheridan Libraries and Museums—Department of Conservation and Preservation, Johns Hopkins University. Its purpose is to bring book and paper conservators, scientists, and engineers into the same working environment to research fundamental questions about materials degradation and conservation techniques; to expand the repertoire of scientific analyses to support conservation; and to develop information, products, and processes of demonstrated use at the conservator’s bench.
    In this study, four different text-weight papers from the mid-1900’s, similar to those found in libraries and archives, were deacidified or left untreated, encapsulated, and aged at low temperatures (45°C or 60 °C) for up to 6 months. The aged samples were then analyzed for changes in pH and cellulose molecular weight using size-exclusion chromatography, as well as classical physical testing criteria. Aging conditions were selected to answer the most pressing questions regarding encapsulation, including (1) whether deacidification consistently makes a significant difference in the aging of encapsulated sheets, all else being equal—the “stewing in its own juices question”; (2) whether encapsulation makes a difference in the aging of acidic sheets—or of alkaline sheets—all else being equal; and (3) whether there is any significant difference in aqueous versus non-aqueous deacidification prior to encapsulation.

    Speakers
    avatar for John Baty

    John Baty

    Assistant Research Professor and Heritage Science for Conservation (HSC) Scientist, Johns Hopkins University
    John Baty holds a joint appointment at Johns Hopkins University as Assistant Research Professor and Heritage Science for Conservation (HSC) Scientist in the Departments of Conservation and Preservation--Sheridan Libraries and University Museums, and Materials Science and Engineering--Whiting School of Engineering. HSC is funded by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to bring book and paper conservators, scientists, and engineers into the same working... Read More →
    WM

    William Minter

    Senior Project Conservator (former), Heritage Science for Conservation, and Owner, Pennsylvania State University


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:30pm - 3:00pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    2:30pm

    (Architecture) Where the Water Flows: Louis Kahn's Bath House
    The Bath House and Day Camp Pavilions, designed by Louis I. Kahn circa 1954-1957 for the Trenton Jewish Community Center (JCC), are locally and nationally significant. They mark a turning point in Kahn's career, representing a new way of defining space, and reflect an important stylistic advancement in the way modernist principles were infused with the lessons of the past. The Bath House and Day Camp were listed on the New Jersey and National Registers in 1984, prior to reaching fifty years of age, reflecting their extreme significance.

    In this interactive session, a diverse panel will review the preservation of this aging modernist facility and the recovery of its historic integrity, which required thoughtful attention to the buildings and landscape, including an abstract mural by Kahn at the entry to one of the pavilions. The mission of the project was threefold: to implement repair and restoration of the Bath House for ongoing use as a community center and pool; to reconstruct, based upon HABS-level documentation, the Day Camp Pavilions; and to interpret the site and improve site access with a new snack bar and new landscape features intended by Kahn but never completed. The preservation objectives included addressing significant architectural challenges with materials, detailing and original construction methods. The project included the restoration of several features designed but lost to time, in particular Kahn’s unique abstract entrance mural.

    According to oral history, Louis I. Kahn and an assistant arrived at the site of the soon-to-be-completed Bath House and began painting a mural adjacent to the entrance that featured geometric forms reminiscent of waves and fish on the textured concrete block wall. Little information about the mural’s creation beyond an initial sketch and an early photograph survive.

    Half of the mural is protected by the eaves of the pyramidal roof, while the other half is exposed. An early photograph shows visible deterioration of the mural where water runoff from the roof flowed down the surface of the mural, washing paint away. It is therefore likely that significant losses of paint due to water damage resulted in the mural being overpainted fairly early in its history.

    Canning Studios and Jablonski Building Conservation were the team selected to focus on the mural. Prior to restoration of the bathhouses, a conditions assessment and finishes investigation was performed for the mural and its substrate, the concrete block. A treatment plan for the restoration of the mural considered several options. The degree of deterioration of the original paint and the extensive losses not just of paint but the concrete block determined the final option selected.

    This significant work of the modern era used inexpensive materials in creative ways absent the constraints of time-tested traditional detailing, which resulted in inherent durability and maintenance issues. These challenges were inherited by the conservation team who, at the same time was seeking to preserve the ideas central to the architectural and artistic significance of Kahn’s work. This is a unique story about a common challenge often faced in conserving the contemporary.

    Speakers
    JC

    John Canning

    John Canning & Co., Ltd.
    MA

    Mary A. C. Jablonski

    Architectural Conservator, Jablonski Building Conservation, Inc.
    AE

    Anne E. Weber

    Partner, Mills + Schnoering Architects


    Saturday June 1, 2013 2:30pm - 4:00pm
    JW Marriott 103-104 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    3:00pm

    (Book and Paper) Update on Digital Print Preservation Research: What We Have Learned So Far About the Permanence and Preservation of Digitally Printed Books
    Many contemporary books and periodicals are now being created with digital printing equipment. These devices use colorants, and often papers, which are different from those used traditional offset lithography. This raises the question for collection caretakers, “Will these materials need a new preservation approach?” For the last five years the Image Permanence Institute (IPI) has been studying the preservation of digital hardcopy materials and developing strategies to maximize their useable lives in cultural heritage collections. Potential deterioration factors for the materials include heat, humidity extremes, air pollutants, light, enclosure materials, handling, and exposure to water (as during floods). In the last two years IPI has added bound volumes to their studies in addition to individual prints. Bound pages have been found to behave similarly to individual prints in some ways, but in other ways their constructions and use positively or adversely impacts their long-term stability. This is a review of the work to date.

    Speakers
    avatar for Daniel Burge

    Daniel Burge

    Senior Research Scientist, Rochester Institute of Technology
    Daniel M. Burge, Senior Research Scientist, has been a full-time member of the Image Permanence Institute (IPI) staff for the last 25 years. He received his B.S. degree in Imaging and Photographic Technology from the Rochester Institute of Technology in 1991. He managed IPI's enclosure testing services from 1991 to 2004. In 2004, he took over responsibility for all of IPI's corporate-sponsored research projects. Since 2007, he has been leading... Read More →


    Saturday June 1, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    3:00pm

    (Electronic Media) Conserving Custom Electronic Video Equipment
    Electronic video instruments are custom devices developed during the 1970s and 1980s that were used to make video art and other time-based media works. The devices include synthesizers, colorizers, keyers, sequencers, video capture devices, computer interfaces, and oscillators, to name a few. They may be modified commercial devices or machines built from scratch. The presentation will consider theories, guidelines, and practices within instrument conservation, industrial conservation, and time-based media conservation that are relevant to the conservation of machines. A central question is whether the machines can and should continue to be 'worked' after they are collected. Also, the presentation will look at user and institutional efforts to save the video instruments and at new instruments being developed for artists' use.

    Speakers
    MJ

    Mona Jimenez

    Associate Arts Professor, NYU Moving Image Archive Program


    Saturday June 1, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
    JW Marriott Meeting Room 201-203 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    3:00pm

    (Paintings) The Restoration and Conservation of the Baroque Mechanism and Painting (Machina) on the Altar of S. Ignazio in the Church of Gesù in Rome
    Carlo Serino, Founder, Equilibrarte; and Antonio Iaccarino Idelson, Conservation of Canvas paintings Professor, University of Urbino

    This talk presents an intervention of the large painting and the counterweight machine designed to allow its movement during special celebrations, on the altar of St. Ignazio, in the church of Gesù in Rome.

    The chapel and its altar are conceived as a “theater” displaying the life and sanctity of St. Ignazio, the founder of the Jesuits. It represents the triumph and glory of the apex of Roman baroque culture. Designed and executed by Andrea Pozzo in 1695-9, it is well preserved and is one of the few remaining important altar machines in Catholic Europe.

    Central to the altar is a large canvas painting depicting St. Ignazio. Painted by Pozzo it measures 6.5 x 3 meters. Working as a theater curtain the painting can be lowered to reveal a monumental statue of the Saint originally made in silver, gilt bronze and precious stones. He stands in full glory, housed in the niche behind the painting.

    The chapel, completely renovated when Pozzo won a competition held in 1695 for reshaping the left transept, is among the most important creations of the late baroque. It is also decorated with frescoes by Giovanni Battista Gaulli (1639-1709), marble and gilt bronze sculptures by Pierre II Le Gros (1666-1719) and J.P. Théodon (1646-1713), and the splendid bronze balustrade designed by Pozzo. An earlier gilt bronze urn by Alessandro Algardi (1595-1654) conserves the body of the Saint.

    The treatment of the painting and altar mechanism had to be addressed on several levels of complexity. Though repaired on numerous occasions much of the original mechanism had survived and all of its elements were still recognizable. But it had been “lost” to use in a lowered position during the last decades. The goal was to conserve and repair as much as possible, replacing only what was necessary to bring it into working order. Most of the damage derived from natural degradation of materials, but some from problems in the original design. Therefore, a deep understanding of the original structure was crucial, as it was necessary to make some difficult decisions in order to assure future safe and efficient movement of the painting.

    The original wood stretcher was conserved with some of the original metal fittings. Only those parts that were too deteriorated to assure safe use were replaced. The same has been done with the counter-weight, pulley and guide rails. Regrettably the main rails, originally in chestnut wood and steel, and the brass wheels that guided the painting through a narrow slit in the stone structure, had to be replaced. Deformation of the rails had pushed the painting against the wall causing severe tears in the canvas during decades of improper use. New stainless steel rails with runners fitted into the rails with sealed ball bearings have replaced the old rails and wheels.

    The painting has been restored, relined and reattached to the original stretcher; however it is now attached only with a spring system placed on the back of the stretcher. This keeps the painting under constant elastic tension with only the minimum amount of force that was considered necessary to hold it in plane. In this case, 2.4 N/cm was the force that assured continuous planar stability of the lined painting. Teflon profiles were added to the edges of the stretcher to allow the movement of the canvas along the entire perimeter, and the painting is now free to expand and contract following environmental variations, avoiding all stress concentrations.

    Working within the requirements of the modern church, the movement of the counterweight is now produced with an electric winch. A priest’s push of a button on a hand-held remote control has replaced manpower in raising and lowering the painting, and sensors located at key points assure its safety.

    Speakers
    AI

    Antonio Iaccarino Idelson

    Conservation of Canvas Paintings Professor, University of Urbino
    Antonio Iaccarino Idelson was born in Naples in 1966. After completing a diploma in wood conservation in Florence, he went on to study conservation of paintings and architectural surfaces from the Istituto Centrale di Restauro of Rome, graduating in 1993. After his studies he worked on a wide range of materials, first on his own, and then as a member of the Cooperative CBC in Rome from 1996 to 2002. A founder of Equilibrarte in 2002, he... Read More →
    CS

    Carlo Serino

    Founder, Equilibrarte
    Carlo Serino graduated in conservation of paintings and architectural surfaces from the Istituto Centrale di Restauro of Rome in 1992. He then started his own firm and between 1993 and 2002 he worked as conservator on a wide variety of materials, with the Istituto Centrale del Restauro and the State Superintendents as his principal clients. A founder of Equilibrarte in 2002, he combines manual skills with an interest in research into technical... Read More →


    Saturday June 1, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
    JW Marriott Grand Ballroom 3 & 4 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    3:00pm

    (Research and Technical Studies) Fat Content in Collagen Based Adhesives – Assumptions and Investigation Results
    Collagen based adhesives with high fat content, such as rabbit skin glue, play a peripheral role within the field of furniture and wood conservation. The limited use of this category of adhesives primarily rests with the assumption that the percentage of fat is the determining factor in their low adhesive and cohesive qualities. Since there are very few published reports on this aspect of collagen based adhesives, the substantiality of these assumptions have to be verified.

    This presentation will outline the practical implications of fat content in collagen based adhesives, based on Sophia Rydell’s masters’ thesis work “The Role of Fat Content in Gelatin Based Adhesives - An Investigation into how the Fat Content Affects Physical Properties”, published in 2011. Testing results indicated that an increase in fat content lowers the melting point and viscosity, characteristics which can be important in hot melt adhesives. More importantly, results also indicated that an increase in fat content improves the flexibility and strength of a wood joint. Should the perception of high fat adhesives be revised?

    While gelatin was the material used as the experimental model for collagen based adhesives, the work additionally highlighted the possibility of using this material as a wood adhesive. The circumstances when a high fat adhesive will offer an advantage over a lean adhesive will be brought to light, as well as its potentials and limitations.

    Speakers
    avatar for Sofia Rydell

    Sofia Rydell

    Assistant Furniture Conservator, Period Furniture Conservation


    Saturday June 1, 2013 3:00pm - 3:30pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom A-B 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    3:30pm

    (Book and Paper) Watermark Capture and Processing with Contemporary Desktop Applications
    The Calendarium, written by Johannes Regiomontanus ca. 1474 and printed in Nuremberg the same year, is part of the Rosenwald Collection in the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress. This book is a superb example of block book printing, essentially a picture book, where the text and image were carved in relief into a block of wood, inked, and then pressed against paper leaving an impression of words and pictures. It emerged in the fifteenth century as a form of duplication for the purpose of educating a semi-literate population, in much the same way that stained glass windows rendered the lives of the saints to a religious congregation. In this case, Regiomontanus’s scientific observations where intended for an audience of astronomers and astrologers. Block books were originally thought to be the precursor of printing with movable type, but modern research has indicated that these scarce books were created during the same period that Gutenberg introduced printing to Western Europe.

    This block book edition of the Calendarium is printed on 31 leaves of paper, some of which contain watermarks indentifying the paper mill that produced the paper. These watermarks are of interest to researchers interested in establishing the dates that various sections of the calendar were printed. Watermarks present on the pages were heavily obscured with diagrams and text, so various techniques were employed to utilize desktop applications and enhance the watermarks for ease of viewing and identification. Initial spectral imaging (reflected and transmitted) captured information in 14 wavebands, the registered images then stacked and run through a simple Principle Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm to enhance variation between text, diagrams, and paper. Selected PCA bands were then imported into Photoshop layers and hue, saturation and brightness changes were experimented with to generate the best composite image. The overlaying text was changed to match the background tone and coloration. Hue changes included changing reds to yellow, blue text to gray to decrease the saturation, and darkening of greens. The Photoshop draw tool was then used to connect the segments and reveal the watermark. If watermark sections were on different sheets these were brought together and stitched together to form a rendering of the complete watermark, and similar watermarks could also be overlaid in Photoshop to check for changes in the mold. Four distinct watermarks and variations were captured. In addition, the processing revealed a section of hidden printed text in the gutter of the folio, with the same text being present on a number of folio sheets. This technique allows conservators, curators and researchers to capture and easily manipulate and process watermarks using contemporary software tools, for provenance of historic paper book and paper materials.


    Speakers
    SA

    Sylvia ALbro

    Senior Paper Conservator, Library of Congress
    Graduated from the New York State University Graduate Program in the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works in Cooperstown New York in 1982. Completed a graduate internship in conservation of works of art on paper at the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Employment has included one year at the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven, Connecticut and current position as Senior Paper Conservator at the Library of Congress. Also serve as the... Read More →
    JB

    John Bertonaschi

    Senior Rare Book Conservator, Library of Congress
    avatar for Fenella France

    Fenella France

    Chief, Preservation Research and Testing Division, Library of Congress
    Dr. France is Chief of the Preservation Research and Testing Division at the Library of Congress researching non-destructive imaging techniques, and prevention of environmental degradation on collections. She received her Ph.D from Otago University, New Zealand. After lecturing at Otago, she was the research scientist for the Star-Spangled Banner project at NMAH. An international specialist on polymer aging and environmental deterioration to... Read More →
    MH

    Meghan Hill

    Preservation Imaging Technician, Library of Congress


    Saturday June 1, 2013 3:30pm - 4:00pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom E 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    4:00pm

    The Great Debate at AIC
    Building on a the rousing success of the 2012 Great Debate at AIC, this year’s Great Debate will again feature up-and-coming and leading conservators competing in an Oxford-Style Debate format. Back to back debate sessions will be moderated by Richard McCoy.

    The Great Debate at AIC will consist of two, back-to-back debate sessions, each with purposely difficult and controversial topics chosen and announced weeks before the meeting. Both debate sessions will have two teams with three debaters per team. Each team will be selected by the moderator in advance of the Annual Meeting.

    Members of the two teams will be selected from AIC membership; those chosen will be members that are interested in engaging in a debate that considers an topic from all perspectives. Each team’s goal will be to win the debate, not necessarily to defend their personal stance on a topic.

    The first debate topic will consider the future of conservation in general, and the second will consider the future of AIC.

    Saturday June 1, 2013 4:00pm - 5:00pm
    JW Marriott White River Ballroom F 10 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204

    5:30pm

    Indianapolis Modern Design Walk
    Cost $8 - Indianapolis is not known for its modern architecture. But maybe it should be. The city is home to buildings designed by the internationally and nationally known firms, including Skidmore Owings and Merrill, Michael Graves and Evans Woollen (all of which have local connections, as well). A walking tour of downtown Indianapolis will take you on an exploration of iconic modernist styles such as International Style, Brutalism, and Post-Modernism. Guided walking tour conducted by Connie Zeigler an architectural historian and owner of the preservation consulting firm, C. Resources Historians.  A great way to end your conference experience.


    *To place your name on the waiting list for this tour, please contact Adam Allen, Meetings Associate at aallen@conservation-us.org or 202-661-8063

    Saturday June 1, 2013 5:30pm - 7:00pm
    JW Marriott 2nd Floor Exit Near Griffin Hall (Maryland Street Side) 19 S West St Indianapolis, IN 46204
     
    Sunday, June 2
     

    9:00am

    Angels Project
    Join your colleagues for a day of giving back and fun. Then Johnson County Museum of History, located in Franklin, IN (about 30 miles outside Indianapolis), will be the site of the 2013 Angels Project on Sunday, April 2, 2013 from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM.

    The museum has a large textiles collection and needs help in cataloging and re-housing it. Conservators of all specialities are needed. Transportation to and from the site will be provided. For more information about the museum, visit www.johnsoncountymuseum.org.

    To volunteer, please contact Ruth Seyler at rseyler@conservation-us.org.

    Sunday June 2, 2013 9:00am - 5:00pm
    Johnson County Museum of History 135 N Main St  Franklin, IN 46131